DGP MIDTERM REVIEW Sentences 1-10 TRANSITIVE VERBS The Two Rules: a. It must be an action verb b. It must be followed by a noun or pronoun which receives the action (called a direct object) TRANSITIVE VERB EXAMPLE: KICKED
Action verb Silvia kicked Juan under the table. Direct Object ( he receives the kick) TRANSITIVE VERB EXAMPLE: WROTE Action verb Alicia wrote a love letter on a restaurant napkin. Direct Object
( what she wrote) INTRANSITIVE VERBS: Two Types of Intransitive Verbs: Linking Verbs - All linking verbs are intransitive verbs a. Action Verbs - If an action verb is intransitive, it will not have a noun (direct object) to receive the action. b.
INTRANSITIVE EXAMPLES: Action Verb Huffing and puffing, we arrived Prepositional Phrase at the classroom door Prepositional Phrase with only seven seconds to spare. INTRANSITIVE VERB EXAMPLE: Action Verb
Sheryl sneezed with violence. Prepositional Phrase FINAL TIPS FOR TRANSITIVE VS. INTRANSITIVE:
For Action Verbs: Its not really about the verb itself, it is about what comes AFTER the verb. If you can take the verb, ask the question what and find a reasonable answer in the sentence, it is Transitive. For Linking Verbs: Make sure you are strictly looking at a linking verb, not a helping verb. Remember, helping verbs are followed by action verbs! All solo linking verbs are intransitive! NOW YOU DECIDETRANSITIVE OR INTRANSITIVE?
Action Verb Rosa usually eats whole-grain cereal for breakfast. Direct Object This action verb is TRANSITIVE! NOW YOU DECIDETRANSITIVE OR INTRANSITIVE? Action Verb During cross-country practice, Damien runs Prepositional Phrases
over hills, through fields, across the river, and along the highway. This action verb is INTRANSITIVE! NOW YOU DECIDETRANSITIVE OR INTRANSITIVE? Helping Verb In the spring, Damien will run his first marathon. Action Verb
Direct Object This action verb combo is TRANSITIVE! ALL THE PREDICATE STUFF The part of a sentence which contains the verb Usually happens AFTER the subject. Predicates always state something about the subject: a. Describe the subject (an adjective or adjective phrase)
b. Renaming the subject (with a noun) PREDICATE ADJECTIVE Predicate Adjectives follow a formula: Called the P.A. Subject+ Linking Verb+ Adjective All of this is part of the predicate PREDICATE ADJECTIVE EXAMPLES
Linking Verb Pie is delicious. Subject Adjective describing the subject PREDICATE NOMINATIVE Predicate Nominatives follow this formula:
Called the P.N. Subject+ Linking Verb+ Noun All of this is part of the predicate The noun in a PN always renames the subject! Remember: Nombre and Nominative have the same root word! PREDICATE NOMINATIVE EXAMPLE: Linking
Verb Pie is a dessert. Subject Noun renames the subject PA, PN, OR DO? Linking Verb Predicate
Adjective! Maria is hungry for pie. Subject Adjective describing the subject PA, PN, OR DO? Linking Verb
The girl behind Jose is smarter than me. Subject Adjective describing the subject Predicate Adjective! PA, PN, OR DO? Predicate
Nominative ! Linking Verb The girl behind Jose is a genius. Subject Noun renaming the subject PA, PN, OR DO? Action
Verb The girl behind Jose failed the test. Subject Noun does not rename the subject Direct Object! DIFFERENT TYPES OF CONJUNCTIONS
All conjunctions join/hook together words, phrases or clauses. Types of Conjunctions weve discussed: a. Coordinating b. Subordinating c. Correlative COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS: The most common conjunctions Show that items have equal emphasis in the sentence.
Joins two or more main clauses or main together Remember the Acronym: FANBOYS F= For B= But A= And O= Or N= Nor Y= Yet S= So COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS: When I go to the store I want to buy peaches, pears, and oranges. All items on my list are important!
Diana stared dreamily at the handsome Mr. McKenzie, but Olivia, who hated economics, furiously jiggled her foot in attempt to ignore him. Both girls are equally important to the sentences purpose (to compare)! SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS The THREE Jobs of a Subordinating Conjunction: a. b.
c. To transition between an independent clause and a dependent clause. To indicate a time, a place, or a cause/effect relationship. To show that one clause is more important than the other. Dont confuse a SC with a Preposition! SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION EXAMPLE: More important
clause (Ind. Cl) SC Ron begins to sneeze violently whenever the girl next to him sprays her flowery perfume. Less important clause (Dep. Cl.) SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION EXAMPLE: SC Less important
clause (Dep. Cl.) Even though Dana persevered at the calculus exam, she was only adding another F beside her name in her teachers grade More important book. clause (Ind. Cl) OTHER SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS after although
as because before even if even though if in order that once provided that rather than since so that than
that though unless until when whenever where whereas wherever whether while why
PREPOSITIONS: Prepositions show where things are in the world Where things are in space or location Where things are in time LOCATION PREPOSITIONS:
The puppy is on the The puppy is in the floor. trash can. The puppy is beside the phone. OTHER LOCATION PREPOSITIONS: by near nearby above below
Over Under Up down around through inside outside (of) between beside beyond in front of
in back of behind next to on top of within beneath underneath among along against In On
TIME PREPOSITIONS These are the same as subordinating conjunctions (word wise) but function simply to tell WHEN something occurred, not to link two phrases together.
Before After During At Since While Meanwhile PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES: Remember, a phrase means a related group
of words Two simple parts of a Prepositional Phrase (PP) 1. Always begins with a preposition 2. Always ends with a noun (sometimes pronoun or gerund). In between part 1 and 2, there may be some added adjectives or other modifiers.
FIND THE PHRASE: The coyote runs after the rabbit. The car stalled despite the tune-up. The team won without the starting quarterback. FIND THE PHRASES: The old farmhouse stood for years, after the revolution, by the fork in the road, beyond the orange grove, over the wooden bridge, at the farthest edge of the family's land, toward the great basin, down in the valley, under the old mining
town, outside the city's limits, and past the end of the county maintained road. OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION The object of the preposition answers the following question: Preposition + WHAT? = Object of the preposition Example: I am at school. at WHAT? School!
LABEL THE OBJECTS: The old farmhouse stood (for years), (after the revolution), (by the fork) (in the road), (beyond the orange grove), (over the wooden bridge), (at the farthest edge) (of the family's land), (toward the great basin), (down in the valley), (under the old mining town), (outside the city's limits), and (past the end) (of the county maintained road.) VERBALS Verbals are words that are created using a
verb, but which function as a noun, adjective or adverb. TYPES OF VERBALS: GERUNDS A verb which acts as a NOUN. Key to remember: Gerund sounds like Gerald, a name for a man. A man is a NOUN. Rules: 1. Verb+ ing 2. Can either be a SUBJECT , DIRECT OBJECT or OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION in a sentence.
GERUNDS IN CONTEXT Reading is fun. Gerund as a subject. I enjoy shopping. Gerund as a direct object. I use pencils for drawing. Gerund as an OP. TYPES OF VERBALS: PARTICIPLES
A verb acting as an ADJECTIVE. Rules: Verb+ ing followed by a noun. OR Verb+ed followed by a noun. PARTICIPLES IN CONTEXT I have running shoes. Frightened, I ran down the street.
Its an unspoken rule. TYPES OF VERBALS: INFINITIVES A verb acting like a noun, adjective, or an adverb Easiest type of verbal to identify: Rule: To+ verb INFINITIVES IN CONTEXT
I like to eat. Infinitive as noun (D.O.) It is the best place to eat. Infinitive as adjective
I need a pen to write a letter. Infinitive as adverb PRONOUNS In general, a pronoun replaces or renames a noun with a more simple, general name. There are many types of Pronouns: a. Nominative b. Possessive
c. Demonstrative d. Indefinite e. Relative f. Reflexive g. And more! (we arent going over more than this though!) NOMINATIVE PRONOUNS: Directly rename something in the sentence. The most common pronouns:
1st Pers. Nom 2nd Pers. Nom 3rd Pers. Nom I You He/She/It Me They/Them We Us POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS: Show that somebody owns something, or that something belongs to them.
His Hers My Mine Their Theirs Your Yours DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS
Represents a thing (or things) This That These Those INDEFINITE PRONOUNS Refer to something undefined by the sentence. The indefinite pronoun could almost be anything.
All Another Anybody Anyone Nobody None Few Any RELATIVE PRONOUN
Introduces somebody in the sentence such as: The person who called me last night was my mom. Who Whom Whose Which That
REFLEXIVE PRONOUN Refers to a normal nominative pronoun, but ends in the word self Himself/Herself Themselves Ourselves Yourselves Itself
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