Detection & Monitoring Chapter 2 DECON v2.0 Basic Disaster Life Support 1 Objectives List the goals of detection during Decontamination operations Discuss general detection principles Describe detection & monitoring for: Chemical events Biological events Radiological events
DECON v 2.0 DETECTION & MONITORING 2 Detection Goals of detection during an event: Determine the possible cause Determine if decontamination is necessary Determine risks to workers Recognizing the need for PPE is vital! Detection is Awareness ! DECON v 2.0
DETECTION & MONITORING 3 PELs Permissible Exposure Limits Federal standards for chemical exposure Different chemicals have different limits Not all chemicals have established PEL 8 hour time weighted average concentration Higher short term exposure limits (STEL) DECON v 2.0 DETECTION & MONITORING
4 IDLH Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health AKA the Hot Zone Simply walking into the area could cause you to collapse and possibly die Unknown releases are IDLH until proven otherwise DECON v 2.0 DETECTION & MONITORING 5
IDLH Examples Confined space entry Potentially explosive or flammable situations Visible vapor clouds Dead animals Collapsed victims Hospitals are not IDLH environments DECON v 2.0 DETECTION & MONITORING 6 Information Sources
Placarding Emergency Response Guide Book Shipping papers Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS ) Product labeling NFPA NIOSH Handbook Poison Control Centers DECON v 2.0 DETECTION & MONITORING 7 Hazardous Matetials
Corrosives Miscellaneous DECON v 2.0 DETECTION & MONITORING 8 DECON v 2.0 DETECTION & MONITORING 9 ERG Identifies UN number on placard
Refers to Guide with information on Health and fire hazards Protective Equipment needed Containment & Evacuation First aid & Emergency response DECON v 2.0 DETECTION & MONITORING 10 Shipping Papers Required for ANY hazardous material being transported Chemical name Amount (weight or volume)
Hazard Classification DECON v 2.0 DETECTION & MONITORING 11 MSDS Chemical Name Hazard Identification Physical & Chemical Properties Information is NOT reviewed but any agency for completeness
DECON v 2.0 DETECTION & MONITORING 12 NFPA Labels Health Hazard Flammability Instability 0 = Good 4 = Very Bad Special Hazards Oxidizer Water Reactive Radiation
DECON v 2.0 DETECTION & MONITORING 13 Chemical Names, synonyms, trade names, Description of chemical and physical properties PEL & IDLH values Personal Protection Recommendations Respirator Recommendations Information on Health Hazards DECON v 2.0 DETECTION & MONITORING
14 Poison Control Centers In depth information about health effects In depth treatment information Antidote availability Toxicologist Consultation DECON v 2.0
DETECTION & MONITORING 15 Chemicals Wide Variety of Dispersal Mechanisms DECON v 2.0 DETECTION & MONITORING 16 Chemical Agent Clues Rapid symptom onset Multiple victims and civilian panic
Similar signs and symptoms Present at same time History of similar site exposure Absence of traumatic injuries Emergency responders may be affected A disseminating device may be used Cloud or vapor release or irritating odor Animal or insect die-off DECON v 2.0 DETECTION & MONITORING 17 Chemical Agents Agents Chemical
Blood (Asphyxiant) Chemical Agents Cyanide Gas Odor: Bitter almonds Symptom Onset: Rapid Symptoms: Normal skin color, gasping for air, shock & seizures DECON v 2.0 DETECTION & MONITORING 21 Nerve Agents (Cholinesterase Inhibitors) Odor
Properties Tabun & Sarin: None or Fruity Volatile Soman: VX: None None / Sulfur Volatile Persistent Symptom Onset: Rapid to 48hrs Symptoms: Pinpoint pupils, salivation, runny nose, shortness of breath, chest tightness, nausea, muscle twitching, seizures, coma, death
DECON v 2.0 DETECTION & MONITORING 22 Nerve Agents Signs and Symptoms D - defecation U - urination M miosis (pinpoint pupils) B BRONCHORRHEA, BRONCHOSPASM E emesis (vomiting) L lacrimation (watery eyes) S - salivation Muscarinic toxidrome DECON v 2.0
F: Fasciculations (muscle twitching) Nicotinic toxidrome DECON v 2.0 DETECTION & MONITORING 24 Chemical Detection Devices Identify unknown chemicals Determine if situation is safe Is concentration in air IDLH? Monitor patients after decontamination Significant clinical effects
Extremely dangerous chemicals Highly contaminated victims DECON v 2.0 DETECTION & MONITORING 25 Chemical Detection Tools All have limited ranges of substances Chemical Detection Papers Concentrated vapors or liquids Air Sampling Devices Vapors or gasses in low concentration
DECON v 2.0 DETECTION & MONITORING 26 Choosing a Detection Device Agents detected What chemicals can it find? What forms; gas, liquid or vapor? Sensitivity Can it measure lower than levels necessary for injury?
Interference Does smoke, moisture, or other chemicals prevent accurate results? Response time Start-up time Alarm capability Time to analyze & report Time to deploy the device Audible, visual, or both DECON v 2.0 DETECTION & MONITORING
27 Choosing a Detection Device Portability Durability Procurement costs Operator skill & training Maintenance DECON v 2.0 Consider weight, size & power source Amount of abuse the device withstands Cost per device needed
Skill involved in using the device & hours of training Calibration & Replacement parts DETECTION & MONITORING 28 Biological Agents Infectious diseases or bacterial toxins There may not be a scene May be hard to detect Long incubation period
Symptoms manifest slowly Non-specific symptoms Ebola Beware of multiple healthy people with similar complaints! DECON v 2.0 DETECTION & MONITORING 29 Biological Agents SAFETY S: Skin rash with fever Smallpox
A: Acute Pulmonary Syndrome with fever Anthrax and plague F: Flu like syndrome with fever Tularemia and SARS E: Excessive Bleeding Viral hemorrhagic fevers T: Toxin Effect without fever Botulism Y: Your personal and community safety Depends on recognition DECON v 2.0
DETECTION & MONITORING 30 Biological Detection Mainly clinical diagnosis Large numbers of victims Unusually bad cases Laboratory confirmation be delayed Evidence of a bioterrorism attack: Witness Report or threat Device found DECON v 2.0 DETECTION & MONITORING
31 Decon for Bio? Decontamination is usually not needed Patients have usually bathed during incubation Exceptions would be known exposures White powder letters Spraying over crowds Etc. PPE may still be needed in either case DECON v 2.0 DETECTION & MONITORING
32 Radiological Events Nuclear weapons will be obvious Dirty bombs or simple dispersal devices may not! DECON v 2.0 DETECTION & MONITORING 33 DECON v 2.0
DETECTION & MONITORING 34 External Exposure / Irradiation s DECON v 2.0 Partial Local
Body DETECTION & MONITORING Whole Body Contamination External DECON v 2.0 DETECTION & MONITORING
Internal Radiation Injury Chemical Damage Free Radicals 10-10 Seconds DECON v 2.0 Cellular Damage Organ Damage
1. Proteins 2. Membrane 3. DNA Tissue damage & Loss of organ function Seconds to hours Hours to years DETECTION & MONITORING DECON v 2.0
DETECTION & MONITORING What to look for Most common presentation is Nausea and Vomiting Onset may be delayed Early symptom onset predicts worse outcome Extreme cases may include hair loss, burns or loss of consciousness DECON v 2.0 DETECTION & MONITORING 39
Radiological Detection Survey Meters Geiger Counters Detect and measure the presence of radiation Survey meters Dosimeters Measure your personal radiation exposure. Dosimeters DECON v 2.0 DETECTION & MONITORING
40 Rad Victim Monitoring Use a survey meter Be careful not to contaminate probes Identify contaminated victims prior to decontamination Unlike chemical post decontamination monitoring is needed for all victims This will be a very slow process DECON v 2.0 DETECTION & MONITORING 41
Summary Now you can: Define PEL and IDLH Identify resources to aid in hazard identification and monitoring Discuss general detection principles Describe detection specifics for: Chemical events (including toxidromes) Biological events Radiological events DECON v 2.0 DETECTION & MONITORING 42 Thank you!
Questions? DECON v2.0 Basic Disaster Life Support 43
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