Creating an Environment for Growth and Prosperity (15th ed.)

Creating an Environment for Growth and Prosperity (15th ed.)

GWARTNEY STROUP SOBEL MACPHERSON Creating an Environment for Growth and Prosperity Full Length Text Part: 3 Macro Only Text Part: 3 Chapter: 16 Chapter: 16 To Accompany: Economics: Private and Public Choice, 15th ed. James Gwartney, Richard Stroup, Russell Sobel, & David Macpherson Slides authored and animated by: James Gwartney & Charles Skipton Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page Historical Perspective on the Economic Growth of the Past Two Centuries th 15 edition

Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page Per Capita Income: The last 1000 years Income stagnated for the 800 years following year 1000, but growth has exploded during the last 200 years. (Measured in 1990 dollars) world per capita income was $667 in 1820 only about 50% higher than year 1000. By 2003, however, income had risen to $6,516 10 times the 1820 level. During the past 200 years, the income growth of the high-income industrial countries (west) has been even higher nearly 20

fold. $25,000 th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson GDP Per Capita 2003: $23,710 $20,000 West GDP per capita $15,000 2003: $6,516 $10,000 World GDP per capita 1820: $1,202 $5,000

1820: $667 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2003 Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page Life Expectancy: The last 1000 years There is a pattern in the life expectancy data that is similar to that in per capita income. Life expectancy at birth for the world rose from 24 to 26 years between 1000 and 1820, but it soared to 64 by 2003. Life expectancy in the high-income industrial countries (West) followed a similar pattern. th

15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson Life Expectancy 80 (at birth) 2003: 76 70 60 2003: 64 50 40 1820: 36 West life expectancy 30

20 10 World life expectancy 1820: 26 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2003 Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page Economic Growth, Production Possibilities, & the Quality of Life th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part.

First page The Importance of Economic Growth th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson Economic growth is important because it is a necessary ingredient for higher incomes and higher living standards. GDP is a measure of output and income. Growth of output is necessary for the growth of income. Per capita GDP is the nations GDP divided by its population. Growth of per capita GDP means more goods & services per person. In most cases, higher per capita GDP means that the typical person has a better diet, improved health and access to medical services, a longer life expectancy, and greater educational opportunity. Growth leads to more than just material goods. It also generally leads a cleaner environment and more time for leisure and recreation. Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part.

First page The Importance of Economic Growth th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson Consumption goods Economic growth makes larger outputs possible. This can be illustrated by an outward shift in the PPC (production possibilities curve). Economic growth means that a larger quantity of goods and services can be produced.

B A PPC2025 PPC2015 A B Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. Capital goods First page th 15 edition The Rule of 70

Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson Economic growth and the Rule of 70: Dividing 70 by a countrys average growth rate gives the number of years required for an economys income level to double. Example: If the U.S. had a growth rate of 2.5%, how many years would it take for the income level of the U.S. to double? 70 = 28 2.5 Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page Impact of Economic Growth Rate Differences Over a 30-Year Period Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson

Per Capita Income Level after 30 years Annual Growth Rate Impact of growth rate differences over 30 years: Here we illustrate how countries with an initial per capita income of $10,000 differ after 30 years for growth rates of 0%, 1%, 2%, and 4%. Note how a country growing at a 4% annual rate will have a substantially higher income level than the others 30 years later. th 15 edition 4%

$32,434 2% 1% 0% $18,114 $13,478 $10,000 Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page Sources of Economic Growth and High Incomes th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part.

First page th 15 edition Sources of Economic Growth Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson Sources of Economic Growth: Gains from trade Entrepreneurial discovery Investment in physical and human capital Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page th 15 edition

Sources of Economic Growth Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson Gains from trade: Trade makes larger outputs possible because of division of labor, specialization in areas of comparative advantage, and application of mass production techniques. The gains from trade will be greater when transactions costs are lower and people are permitted to trade over a larger market area. Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page Sources of Economic Growth th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup

Sobel-Macpherson Entrepreneurial discovery: Discovery of improved products and lower cost production methods is a driving force of economic growth. Technological improvement is scientific discovery while innovation is its practical application and dissemination. Each of these play a role in the development of improved products and better ways of doing things. Schumpeter referred to this process as "creative destruction." It is vitally important that entrepreneurs have a chance to try out new ideas, but it is also important that resources are not wasted on inefficient projects. In a market economy, profits and losses perform these functions. Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page th 15 edition Sources of Economic Growth

Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson Investment in physical and human capital: More and better machines and tools can enhance the productivity of people. Education and training that improves the skill level of workers will also increase output. Other things constant, countries that invest more will tend to grow more rapidly. But, investment is costly; it involves the sacrifice of current consumption. High investment rates do not guarantee rapid growth. The investment must be channeled into wealth-creating projects. Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page Questions for Thought: th 15 edition

Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson 1. If a country has sustained growth of per capita income of 5% annually, how many years will it take for income to double? 2. List five new products that have replaced older products and largely rendered them obsolete. 3. What is "creative destruction"? Explain in your own words how it influences our living standards and the quality of our lives. 4. In a market economy, what must an entrepreneur do in order to be successful? How do the actions of successful entrepreneurs influence economic growth? Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page Questions for Thought: th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup

Sobel-Macpherson 5. What are the three major sources of economic growth? Can you think of another major source of growth that has significantly increased our living standards? If so, what is it? Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page The Institutional Environment th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page The Institutional Environment and Economic Growth

th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson Modern growth analysis stresses that institutions and policies influence the realization of gains from trade, discovery and dissemination of improved products and production methods, and the level and productivity of investment. Modern analysis builds on the work of Nobel Laureate Douglass North and Peter Bauer. Other leading contributors are Daron Acemoglu (MIT), Robert Barro (Harvard), and Barry Weingast (Stanford). Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page The Institutional Environment and Economic Growth

th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson Economic growth is a complex process that generally involves a combination of several interrelated factors. Counterproductive policies in one or two key areas can substantially harm the overall performance of an economy. Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page What Institutions and Policies Will Promote Growth? th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson

Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page Key Elements of a Sound Institutional Environment th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson Institutional elements that are key to the growth process: a legal system that protects property rights and enforces contracts even-handedly, competitive markets, access to money of stable value, minimal regulation, avoidance of high marginal tax rates, and, trade openness. Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part.

First page th 15 edition Modern Growth Analysis Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson Modern growth analysis stresses the importance of institutions and policies. Consider how the six factors mentioned in the previous slide will influence the gains from trade, discovery of better ways of doing things, and investment. Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page Key Element for Growth: -- Legal System

th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson A legal system that protects property rights and enforces contracts even-handedly is necessary for the smooth operation of markets. Private ownership provides people with a strong incentive to develop and use resources wisely, innovate and discover better ways of doing things, and to invest and conserve for the future. In contrast, insecure property rights weaken the incentive to invest and to engage in entrepreneurial activity. Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page Key Element for Growth: -- Legal System th

15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson If contracts are not enforced or if they are enforced in a biased manner, transaction costs will be higher, trade will be riskier, and the volume of trade will fall. The security of property rights is often undermined by political instability, civil unrest, and war. In recent years, political instability has contributed to the dismal economic performance of several nations, including the Democratic Republic of Congo, Zimbabwe, Haiti, Nicaragua, Russia, and Iraq. Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page Key Element for Growth: -- Competitive Markets th 15

edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson When markets are competitive, self-interested individuals have a strong incentive to develop resources and provide goods that are highly valued by others. In a competitive setting, producers must provide goods at a low cost and serve the interests of consumers because if they dont, other suppliers will. The freedom to compete will encourage entrepreneurial activity and provide producers with a strong incentive to produce quality products at a low cost. Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page -- Monetary and Price Stability th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup

Sobel-Macpherson When the inflation rate is low and highly predictable, the risks of exchange across time periods is reduced. In contrast, high and variable rates of inflation generate uncertainty and thereby increase the cost of exchanges across time periods and reduce investment. Thus, the gains from trade, entrepreneurial discovery, and investment are diminished. Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page Key Element for Growth: -- Minimal Regulation th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson Regulation is a blunt instrument and it often generates

harmful secondary effects. Regulations that restrict entry and interfere with voluntary exchange will reduce the competitiveness of markets and the volume of trade. Regulations that favor some at the expense of others will encourage rent-seeking and political corruption. Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page Key Element for Growth: -- Avoid High Marginal Tax Rates th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson High marginal tax rates reduce the incentive of people to earn, invest, and engage in other productive activities. High taxes also reduce efficiency by driving productive activity into the underground economy, encouraging tax

avoidance, and even inducing highly productive persons to move to other countries. Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page Key Element for Growth: -- Trade Openness th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson Like domestic trade, international trade is mutually advantageous. With trade, countries can specialize in the production of goods they can produce economically and trade for those that would be costly to produce domestically. As a result, joint output can be expanded and both trading partners can consume a larger, more diverse bundle of goods. Tariffs, quotas, and other trade restrictions reduce the

gains from specialization and international trade and thereby reduce income below its potential. Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page Key Element for Growth: -A Summary What can governments do to promote prosperity? th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson Governments promote economic progress when they protect individuals & their property, enforce contracts impartially, provide access to money of stable value, avoid high taxes and excessive regulation, and foster competitive markets and free international trade.

Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page Other Factors That May Influence Growth and Income th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page Other Views on Growth th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson

Through the years, economists have developed several theories about why some countries grow and others stagnate. While some are valid, history has shown others to either be fallacious or incomplete. This section will consider some of these alternative views. Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page th 15 edition Population and Growth Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson In 1798, economist Thomas Malthus argued that if income rose above subsistence level, this would trigger a population boom that would drive income back down to subsistence level. Malthus argued that population would grow exponentially

(e.g. 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, etc.) while the resources required to expand production would grow only linearly (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.). Therefore, any increase of income above subsistence would soon be eliminated by rapid population growth. Malthus was wrong because he did not understand the importance of technological improvements, innovation, and entrepreneurial discovery. Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page Natural Resources and Growth th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson There is a tendency to think that income differences across countries are largely the result of natural resources. While resources may give a country an advantage, the linkage between resources and income is weak. Many high income countries have few natural resources:

Japan, Singapore, and Hong Kong. Many resource rich countries are poor: Nigeria, Venezuela, Indonesia, and Russia. Resource Curse: View that abundant resources often lead to the adoption of counterproductive policies. This would weaken the link between the abundance of natural resources & income levels. Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page Foreign Aid and Growth th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson In the 50s & 60s, it was widely believed aid from high-income countries would help poor countries invest in infrastructure such as roads and power generating facilities and that this would provide the start-up capital needed to trigger the growth process.

While the theory sounded good, studies indicate that the aid was largely ineffective. The aid was often used to prop up corrupt authoritarian regimes and thereby retard needed institutional change. Further, aid in the form of surplus agricultural products often disrupted markets in less developed countries. Unless growth-oriented policies are adopted, foreign aid will continue to be ineffective. Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page Climate, Location, and Growth th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson Jeffery Sachs of Columbia University argues that tropical countries are disadvantaged because: Their hot, humid climates erode the energy level of workers and increase the risk of disabling and life-threatening diseases,

and, Their location is far from the major markets of Western Europe, North America, and Japan. While income levels of tropical countries are generally lower than incomes in more temperate climates, their institutions and policies are also less consistent with the realization of gains from trade, entrepreneurship, and investment. The record of Singapore & Hong Kong shows that tropical countries with sound institutions can achieve impressive growth and income. Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page Poverty, Foreign Aid, and Quality of Institutions in Africa th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part.

First page Poverty, Foreign Aid, and Quality of Institutions in Africa th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson More foreign aid has been directed at Africa than any other region in the world. But the results have been disappointing. The poverty rate in Africa has declined slower than in other regions of the world. The institutional environment in Africa is inconsistent with economic growth. Africa is characterized by: Trade restrictions, a poor legal environment, and extensive regulation of business. Most sub-Saharan countries rank in the bottom quarter of the Economic Freedom of the World (EFW) index. Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part.

First page th 15 edition Poverty, Foreign Aid, and Quality of Institutions in Africa In sub-Saharan Africa, the extreme poverty rate (per person income of $1.25 per day) fell from 61% in 1980 to 51% in 2005. In the rest of the developing world the extreme poverty rate fell from 58% to 21% during the same period. The moderate poverty rate (per person income of $2.00 per day) also declined far less rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa than in the rest of the developing world.

Moderate Poverty Rate (%) Extreme Poverty Rate (%) 61 58 60 Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson 77 76 57 51 78 76 72

60 50 40 41 28 21 1980 1990 2000 2005 1980 1990 2000

2005 Sub-Saharan Africa World, excluding sub-Saharan Africa Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page Institutions, Policies, and Prosperity th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page Institutions, Policies, and Prosperity th

15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson Institutions and policies matter because they shape incentives and thereby influence whether individuals engage in productive, unproductive, or even counterproductive activities. When institutions and policies provide secure property rights, a fair and balanced judicial system, monetary stability, and effective limits on governments ability to transfer wealth through taxation and regulation, individuals are encouraged to engage in productive activities. When the legal and regulatory environment fails to protect property rights and often favors some at the expense of others, individuals are instead encouraged to engage in rent-seeking, lobbying, bribes, and other counterproductive activities. Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page Institutions, Policies, and Prosperity

th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson Unless countries adopt institutions and policies supportive of trade, entrepreneurial discovery, & private investment, they will be unable to sustain long-term growth and achieve high income levels. Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page Questions for Thought: th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson 1. Why will a nations legal system influence its growth and

prosperity? What would a legal system consistent with strong growth look like? 2. If the people of a nation are going to get the most from their resources, why is competition important? What must a firm do in order to compete effectively? If a firm is driven out of business because of inability to compete, will this adversely affect growth and prosperity? 3. When the inflation rate is volatile, how is the volume of trade affected? How will this influence the income levels of people? Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page Questions for Thought: th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson 4. When government is heavily involved in the regulation of markets, how will this influence the gains from trade

and growth of the economy? How will it influence the degree of rent-seeking by business and labor groups and the campaign contributions available to politicians? Are politicians likely to enact regulations that encourage rent seeking? 5. Why might abundant natural resources generate secondary effects that would make sustained economic growth less likely? Does foreign aid generate similar secondary effects? Why or why not? Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page Questions for Thought: th 15 edition Gwartney-Stroup Sobel-Macpherson 6. Writing at the end of the 18th century, Thomas Malthus argued that income per person would never rise much above the subsistence level. Why did he believe this?

Explain why he was wrong? Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page End of Chapter 16 Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible web site, in whole or in part. First page

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