Crash Recovery - University of Calgary

Crash Recovery - University of Calgary

CPSC 461 Goal Goal of this lecture is to study Crash Recovery which is subpart of transaction management in DBMS. Crash recovery in DBMS is achieved through maintaining logs and checkpoints. Outline of Presentation 1.Review of ACID Properties 1.1 Motivation 1.2 Assumptions 1.3 Handling Buffer Pool 2. Basic Idea :Logging 2.1 Write-Ahead Logging 2.2 WAL & the Log

2.3 Log Records 2.4 Other log-related state 2.5 Normal execution of transactions 3. Checkpoints 3.1 Big picture of storage 3.2 Simple Transactions Abort 3.2 Abort Cont. 3.3 Transaction Commit 3.4 Crash recovery 3.5 Recovery: The analysis phase 3.6 Recovery: The REDO phase 3.7 Recovery: Undo phase 4. Summary 1.0 Review: The ACID properties

A tomicity: All actions in the Xact happen, or none happen. C onsistency: If each Xact is consistent, and the DB starts consistent, it ends up consistent. I solation: Execution of one Xact is isolated from that of other Xacts. D urability: If a Xact commits, its effects persist. The Recovery Manager guarantees Atomicity & Durability. 1.1 Motivation

Atomicity: Transactions may abort (Rollback). Durability: What if DBMS stops running? (Causes?) Desired Behavior after system restarts: T1, T2 & T3 should be durable. T4 & T5 should be aborted (effects not seen). T1 T2 T3

T4 T5 crash! 1.2 Assumptions Concurrency control is in effect. Strict 2PL, in particular. Updates are happening in place. i.e. data is overwritten on (deleted from) the disk. A simple scheme to guarantee Atomicity & Durability?

1.3 Handling the Buffer Pool Force every write to disk? Poor response time. No Steal But provides durability. Force Trivial Steal buffer-pool frames Steal from uncommited Xacts? If not, poor throughput. No Force If so, how can we ensure

atomicity? Desired 1.4 More on Steal and Force STEAL (why enforcing Atomicity is hard) To steal frame F: Current page in F (say P) is written to disk; some Xact holds lock on P. What if the Xact with the lock on P aborts? Must remember the old value of P at steal time (to support UNDOing the write to page P). NO FORCE (why enforcing Durability is hard)

What if system crashes before a modified page is written to disk? Write as little as possible, in a convenient place, at commit time,to support REDOing modifications. 2.0 Basic Idea: Logging Record REDO and UNDO information, for every update, in a log. Sequential writes to log (put it on a separate disk). Minimal infowritten to log, so multiple updates fit in a single log page.

Log: An ordered list of REDO/UNDO actions Log record contains: and additional control info. 2.1 Write-Ahead Logging (WAL) The Write-Ahead Logging Protocol: Must force the log record for an update before the corresponding data page gets to disk. Must write all log records for a Xact before commit. #1 guarantees Atomicity. #2 guarantees Durability. Exactly how is logging (and recovery!) done? Well study the ARIES algorithms. 2.2 WAL & the Log

DB LSNs RAM pageLSNs flushedLSN Each log record has a unique Log Sequence Number (LSN). LSNs always increasing. Log records

flushed to disk Each data page contains a pageLSN. The LSN of the most recent log record for an update to that page. System keeps track of flushedLSN. The max LSN flushed so far. WAL: Before a page is written, pageLSN Log tail pageLSN flushedLSN in RAM 2.3 Log Records LogRecord fields: update records

only prevLSN XID type pageID length offset before-image after-image Possible log record types: Update Commit Abort End (signifies end of commit or abort)

Compensation Log Records (CLRs) for UNDO actions 2.4 Other Log-Related State Transaction Table: One entry per active Xact. Contains XID, status (running/commited/aborted), and lastLSN. Dirty Page Table: One entry per dirty page in buffer pool. Contains recLSN -- the LSN of the log record which first caused the page to be dirty. 2.5 Normal Execution of an Xact Series of reads & writes, followed by commit

or abort. We will assume that write is atomic on disk. In practice, additional details to deal with nonatomic writes. Strict 2PL. STEAL, NO-FORCE buffer management, with Write-Ahead Logging. 3.0 Check pointing Periodically, the DBMS creates a checkpoint, in order to minimize the time taken to recover in the event of a system crash. Write to log:

begin_checkpoint record: Indicates when chkpt began. end_checkpoint record: Contains current Xact table and dirty page table. This is a `fuzzy checkpoint: Other Xacts continue to run; so these tables accurate only as of the time of the begin_checkpoint record. No attempt to force dirty pages to disk; effectiveness of checkpoint limited by oldest unwritten change to a dirty page. (So its a good idea to periodically flush dirty pages to disk!) Store LSN of chkpt record in a safe place (master record).

3.1 The Big Picture: Whats Stored Where LOG DB LogRecords prevLSN XID type pageID length offset before-image after-image Data pages

each with a pageLSN master record RAM Xact Table lastLSN status Dirty Page Table recLSN flushedLSN 3.2 Simple Transaction Abort

For now, consider an explicit abort of a Xact. No crash involved. We want to play back the log in reverse order, UNDOing updates. Get lastLSN of Xact from Xact table. Can follow chain of log records backward via the prevLSN field. Before starting UNDO, write an Abort log record. For recovering from crash during UNDO! 3.4 Transaction Commit Write commit record to log. All log records up to Xacts lastLSN are

flushed. Guarantees that flushedLSN lastLSN. Note that log flushes are sequential, synchronous writes to disk. Many log records per log page. Commit() returns. Write end record to log. 3.5 Crash Recovery: Big Picture Oldest log rec. of Xact active at crash

Smallest recLSN in dirty page table after Analysis Start from a checkpoint (found via master record). Three phases. Need to: Figure out which Xacts committed since checkpoint, which failed (Analysis). REDO all actions.

(repeat history) UNDO effects of failed Xacts. Last chkpt CRASH A R U 3.5 Recovery: The Analysis Phase Reconstruct state at checkpoint. via end_checkpoint record. Scan log forward from checkpoint. End record: Remove Xact from Xact table. Other records: Add Xact to Xact table, set lastLSN=LSN, change Xact status on commit. Update record: If P not in Dirty Page Table,

Add P to D.P.T., set its recLSN=LSN. 3.6 Recovery: The REDO Phase We repeat History to reconstruct state at crash: Reapply all updates (even of aborted Xacts). Scan forward from log rec containing smallest recLSN. For each update log rec LSN, REDO the action unless: Affected page is not in the Dirty Page Table (D.P.T.). To REDO an action: Reapply logged action. Set pageLSN to LSN. No additional logging!

3.7 Recovery: The UNDO Phase ToUndo={ l | l a lastLSN of a loser Xact} Repeat: Choose largest LSN among ToUndo. Determine if LSN is an update. Undo the update, write a CLR, add prevLSN to ToUndo. Until ToUndo is empty. 4.0 Summary of Logging/Recovery Recovery Manager guarantees Atomicity & Durability. Use WAL to allow STEAL/NO-FORCE w/o sacrificing correctness.

LSNs identify log records; linked into backwards chains per transaction. pageLSN allows comparison of data page and log records. 4.1 Summary, Cont. Checkpointing: A quick way to limit the amount of log to scan on recovery. Recovery works in 3 phases: Analysis: Forward from checkpoint. Redo: Forward from oldest recLSN. Undo: Backward from end to first LSN of oldest Xact alive at crash. Redo repeats history: Simplifies the logic!

Examples and Useful links DBMS examples : MySQL, PostgreSQL, Microsoft Access, SQL Server, FileMaker, Oracle, RDBMS, dBASE, server.102/b14220/transact.htm cd43/Lecture9.pdf Review Questions What does ACID stands for ? Explain why we need logs for transaction management.

Name some log record types. Why does DBMS create checkpoints? Illustrate crash recovery ? Thank You ! References: Database Management System 3rd Edition by R. Ramakrishnan and J. Gehrke

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