Construction Type of Buildings - About people.tamu.edu

Construction Type of Buildings - About people.tamu.edu

Construction Type of Buildings COSC459_PPT3 Building Construction Types All construction types must be classified into the following six types: 1. Frame Construction (ISO Class I, IBC Type V) 2. Joisted Masonry (ISO Class 2, IBC Type III, IBC Type IV)

3. Light Noncombustible (ISO Class 3, IBC Type IIB) 4. Masonry Noncombustible (ISO Class 4, IBC Type IIA) 5. Modified Fire Resistive (ISO Class 5, IBC Type IB) 6. Fire Resistive (ISO Class 6, IBC Type IA) IBC & ISO International Building Code (IBC) by International Code Council http://codes.iccsafe.org/

Insurance Services Office, Inc. (ISO), a provider of data, underwriting, risk management and legal/regulatory services (with special focus on community fire-protection efforts and Building Code Effectiveness Evaluation) to propertycasualty insurers and other clients. http://www.verisk.com/iso.html How building class is determined Classification of a building class is based on

two factors: building elements and fireresistance rating. http://www.wikihow.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type Overview for Assessing Construction Type 1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6. 7. Building elements: The building materials used in the construction of the following elements are the foundation for classification, be they wood, steel, or masonry. Structural frame

Exterior bearing walls Interior bearing walls Exterior non bearing walls and partitions Interior non-bearing walls and partitions Floor construction, including supporting beams and joists Roof construction, including supporting beams and joists are comprised of http://www.wikihow.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type

Fire-resistance rating: This is the other factor in determining construction class. The building materials used in the construction of the building elements above will have a fire-resistance rating. Fire-resistance rating typically means the duration for which a passive fire protection system can withstand a standard fire resistance test. This can be quantified simply as a measure of time (ex. 0 hours, 1 hour, or 2 hour), or it may entail a host of other criteria involving other evidence of functionality or fitness for purpose.

Minimum rule: It is important to remember when selecting the construction class that the building is only as strong as its weakest element. http://www.wikihow.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type To determine ISO Class To determine the ISO class of the building, we must know the following composition of the building elements:

Structural frame Bearing walls (interior and exterior) Floor construction Roof construction What the fire rating of the materials http://www.wikihow.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type International Building Code (IBC) versus Insurance Services Office (ISO):

International Building Code (IBC): This is a model building code developed by the International Code Council (ICC). A large portion of the International Building Code deals with fire prevention. It differs from the related International Fire Code in that the IBC handles fire prevention in regards to construction and design and the fire code handles fire prevention in an ongoing basis. IBC is more descriptive and also includes A or B types of construction for each class. A is protected, meaning that all structural members of a building or structure have an additional fire rated coating or cover by means of sheetrock, spray on,

or other approved method. The additional fire rated coating or cover extends the fire resistance of the structural members by at least 1 hour. B is unprotected, meaning that all structural members of a building or structure have no additional fire rated coating or cover. Exposed members are only fire resistant according to their natural ability, characteristics, and fire rating. http://www.wikihow.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type Insurance Services Office (ISO): This is a

provider of data, underwriting, risk management and legal/regulatory services to property-casualty insurers and other clients. http://www.wikihow.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type 1. Frame Construction (ISO Class I, IBC Type V) Frame construction is ISO Class 1. ISO Class 1 encompasses IBC Type VA and IBC Type VB. Regardless of whether the IBC classification is

A (protected) or B (unprotected) the ISO Class is 1. Building elements: Frame buildings are buildings with exterior walls, floors, and roofs with combustible construction or buildings with exterior walls of noncombustible or slow-burning construction with combustible floors and roofs. Frame buildings generally have roof, floor, and supports of combustible material, usually wood, and combustible interior walls.

http://www.wikihow.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type 1. Frame Construction (ISO Class I, IBC Type V) Continued.. Two variations on frame construction don't change the construction class: Masonry veneer (brick veneer)- Masonry veneer is thin layers of brick, stone, or stucco, used for appearance purposes rather than structural support. Metal clad - A building with a metal exterior wall may not look like frame construction, but when the metal skin is attached to wood studs and joists, ISO classifies the building as frame.

Other conditions that lead to classification as frame construction include: Metal walls or floors sheathed with combustible materials Metal floors or roofs with combustible insulation or ceiling material attached to the underside or within 18 inches (45.7 cm) of horizontal supports Composite assemblies of noncombustible materials with combustible materials http://www.wikihow.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type 1. Frame Construction (ISO Class I, IBC Type V) Continued..

Advantages: easy to erect and alter economical versatile performs well in Earthquake areas can move Disadvantages: fire can spread rapidly highly damageable

may become unstable in a fire may include enclosed spaces where fire can spread undetected http://www.wikihow.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type (Type V Construction) http://academics.triton.edu/faculty/fheitzman/BUILDING%20STR UCTURE%20TYPES.html

Type V Construction http://desource.uvu.edu/ctc/iaco/iaco_01.php Type V Construction http://www.arch.ttu.edu/courses/2013/spring/3502_perl/Bhatti/03/Codes.html 2. Joisted Masonry (ISO Class 2, IBC Type III, IBC Type IV) Joisted Masonry construction is ISO Class 2. ISO Class 2 encompasses IBC Type IIIA and IBC Type IIIB.

Regardless of whether the IBC classification is A (protected) or B (unprotected) the ISO Class is 2. IBC Type IV is Heavy Timber construction and is considered ISO Class 2. The reason is that the heavy timbers perform well and do not fail early in a fire. http://www.wikihow.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type 2. Joisted Masonry (ISO Class 2, IBC Type III, IBC Type IV)

Continued.. Building elements: Joisted Masonry buildings are buildings with exterior walls of masonry or fire-resistive construction rated for not less than one hour and with combustible floors and roofs. There are several types of masonry used in the exterior bearing walls of joisted masonry buildings: brick

concrete either reinforced or non reinforced hollow concrete masonry units tile stone note that exterior bearing walls may also be any noncombustible

materials with fire-resistance ratings of not less than one hour. http://www.wikihow.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type 2. Joisted Masonry (ISO Class 2, IBC Type III, IBC Type IV) Continued.. Advantages: harder to ignite consumed more slowly by fire more structural stability

greater salvage value lack of concealed spaces (Heavy Timber) Disadvantages: floors and roofs of combustible materials subject to damage by fire presence of concealed spaces http://www.wikihow.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type WOOD POST AND BEAM

(Type IV Construction) http://academics.triton.edu/faculty/fheitzman/BUILDING%20STRUC TURE%20TYPES.html 3. Light Noncombustible (ISO Class 3, IBC Type IIB) Classification: Light Noncombustible construction is ISO Class 3. ISO

Class 3 encompasses IBC Type IIB (unprotected). Building elements: Light Noncombustible buildings are buildings with exterior walls of light metal or other noncombustible material and with noncombustible floors and roofs: buildings with exterior walls, floors, and roofs of noncombustible or slow-burning materials building supports of noncombustible or slow-burning materials noncombustible or slow-burning roof decks on noncombustible or slow-burning supports regardless of the type of insulation on the

roof surface http://www.wikihow.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type 3. Light Noncombustible (ISO Class 3, IBC Type IIB) Continued Advantages: easy to erect economical to build uses materials that dont readily burn

Disadvantages: contains steel, which loses strength at high temperatures highly damageable buildings unstable buildings under fire conditions uses slow-burning materials that do burn adding fuel to a fire http://www.wikihow.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type WOOD ROOF TRUSS

(Type III or V Construction) http://academics.triton.edu/faculty/fheitzman/BUILDING%20STRUC TURE%20TYPES.html 4. Masonry Noncombustible (ISO Class 4, IBC Type IIA) Classification: Masonry Noncombustible construction is ISO Class 4. ISO

Class 4 encompasses IBC Type Type IIA (protected). Building elements: Masonry Noncombustible buildings are buildings with exterior walls of masonry material and with noncombustible or slow burning floors and roofs. buildings with exterior walls of masonry not less than four inches thick, or buildings with exterior walls of fire-resistive construction with a

rating of not less than one hour, and noncombustible or slow-burning floors and roofs regardless of the type of insulation on the roof surface http://www.wikihow.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type 4. Masonry Noncombustible (ISO Class 4, IBC Type IIA) Continued.. Advantages:

Uses floors and roof supported by superior exterior bearing members that provide for stability and are less likely to collapse during a fire Uses materials that dont readily burn Disadvantages:

Uses unprotected steel for interior members of floors and roof, and steel loses strength and becomes less stable and more damageable at high temperatures Uses slow-burning materials that do burn adding fuel to a fire http://www.wikihow.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type STEEL FRAME (Type I or II

Construction) http://academics.triton.edu/faculty/fheitzman/BUILDING%20STRUC TURE%20TYPES.html SPACE FRAME (Type I or II Construction)

http://academics.triton.edu/faculty/fheitzman/BUILDING%20STRUC TURE%20TYPES.html 5. Modified Fire Resistive (ISO Class 5, IBC Type IB) Classification: Modified Fire Resistive construction is ISO Class 5. ISO Class 5 encompasses IBC Type IB. Building elements: Modified Fire Resistive Buildings are buildings where the exterior bearing walls and load-bearing portions of exterior walls must be of noncombustible materials or of masonry, but exterior

nonbearing walls and wall panels may be slow-burning, combustible, or with no fire- resistance rating. Buildings with exterior walls, floors, and roofs of masonry materials described in the definition of fire resistive (Construction Class 6) less thick than required for fire-resistive structures but not less than four inches thick, or Fire-resistive materials with a fire-resistance rating less than two hours but not less than one hour http://www.wikihow.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type

5. Modified Fire Resistive (ISO Class 5, IBC Type IB) Continued Advantages: uses noncombustible materials allows greater height and area than other construction classes uses load-bearing members or assemblies that resist damage from fire Disadvantages: expensive to construct and repair

provides a false sense of security http://www.wikihow.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type 6. Fire Resistive (ISO Class 6, IBC Type IA) Building elements: The exterior bearing walls and load-bearing portions of exterior walls must be of noncombustible materials or of masonry, but exterior nonbearing walls and wall panels may be slow burning, combustible, or with no fire-resistance rating. Walls:

solid masonry, including reinforced concrete not less than four inches thick hollow masonry not less than 12 inches (30.5 cm) thick hollow masonry less than 12 inches (30.5 cm) thick, but not less than eight inches thick with a listed fire-resistance rating of not less than two hours assemblies with not less than a two-hour fire-resistance rating Floors and roofs: reinforced concrete not less than four inches thick assemblies with not less than a two-hour fire-resistance rating Structural metal supports:

Horizontal and vertical load-bearing protected metal supports including pre stressed and post tensioned concrete units with not less than a two-hour fire-resistance rating http://www.wikihow.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type 6. Fire Resistive (ISO Class 6, IBC Type IA) Continued.. Advantages: uses noncombustible materials

allows greater height and area than other construction classes uses load-bearing members or assemblies that resist damage from fire Disadvantages: expensive to construct and repair provides a false sense of security http://www.wikihow.com/Determine-a-Building%27s-Construction-Type STEEL JOISTS

(Type II Construction) http://academics.triton.edu/faculty/fheitzman/BUILDING%20STRUC TURE%20TYPES.html LIGHTWEIGHT STEEL FRAME (Type II

Construction) http://academics.triton.edu/faculty/fheitzman/BUILDING%20STRUC TURE%20TYPES.html FLAT PLATE CONCRETE (Type I Construction)

http://academics.triton.edu/faculty/fheitzman/BUILDING%20STRUC TURE%20TYPES.html POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE FRAME (Type I Construction) http://academics.triton.edu/faculty/fheitzman/BUILDING%20STRUC TURE%20TYPES.html

PRECAST CONCRETE FRAME (Type I Construction) http://academics.triton.edu/faculty/fheitzman/BUILDING%20STRUC TURE%20TYPES.html

https://services.online.missouri.edu/ex ec/data/courses2/9050/lesson01/lesso n01.asp Type IFire-Resistive Buildings online.missouri.edu https://pixabay.com/en/building-construction-architecture-856444/

https://pixabay.com/en/construction-architecture-industrial-523388/ https://pixabay.com/en/warehouse-industrial-boats-storage-691922/ https://pixabay.com/en/forklift-warehouse-machine-worker-835340/ https://dps.mn.gov/divisions/sfm/programs-services/Documents/Sprinkler%20Applications/ConstructionTypeComparison.pdf www.nfpa.org/

NFPA 220: Standard on Types of Building Construction https://www.nfpa.org/Assets/files/ AboutTheCodes/ 220/220_A2014_BLDBLC_FD_FirstDraftforballot.pdf www.hhs.iup.edu/cjanicak/.../ SAFE%20674%20Class %203%202012.ppt

Example: NFPA 220 Type I (443) - The three Arabic numerals in parentheses following the Roman numeral indicate the fire resistance of the exterior bearing walls, structural frame, and floor, respectively. http://surveyortraining.cms.hhs.gov/ALSC/documents/Construction_Types_with_Highli ght.pdf

http://surveyortraining.cms.hhs.gov/ALSC/L1/L1_40t1_65.aspx Correlating Building Codes http://surveyortraining.cms.hhs.gov/ALSC/L1/L1_40t1_70.aspx http://www.iccsafe.org/ 2015 International Building Code

http://codes.iccsafe.org/app/book/toc/2015/ICodes/2015%20IBC%20HTML/index.html http://my.firefighternation.com/group/buildingconstruc tionfirefightersafety/forum/topics/types-of-building-co nstruction?q=group/buildingconstructionfirefightersafe ty/forum/topics/types-of-building-construction http:// surveyortraining.cms.hhs.gov/

ALSC/L1/L1_20.aspx http://www.fireengineering.com/articles/2013/05/ construction-concerns--construction-types-andfire-behavior.html http://www.fireengineering.com/content/dam/fe/onlinearticles/documents/ 2013/20130513havel_firebehavior.pdf

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