Chapter 9 Comprehension of Informational Text Reflections on Informational Text Do you recall going through a slump in your reading development, when you lacked the motivation and skills to read a textbook? If so, how did you get over that slump?
How will you motivate your students to read informational text, especially if: They lack necessary skills. They say they want to read only stories/narrative text, not nonfiction. Factors Affecting the Comprehension Process Within the reader Within the readers environment
Within the text Necessary Skills for Understanding Informational Text Knowledge of organizational patterns Adequate background knowledge Knowledge of specific terms Ability to analyze the
authors purpose and credentials Ability to synthesize similar information from various sources Prior knowledge and experience Personal interest Skilled vs. Unskilled Readers
of Informational Text Take a look at Figure 9.1, on page 219 of the textbook. Do you think some skills are more important than others? Which ones? Why? Comprehension Factors in the Readers Environment Home/parents and caregivers Community
School/effective teachers Organizational Structure of Expository Text Chronology or sequence Description or enumeration Listing Classification or hierarchy Comparison/contrast
Cause/effect Problem/solution Persuasion Elements to Consider in an Informational Book Analysis Eye appeal Text featuresand whether its a traditional book or ebook Authors writing style Use of technical vocabulary
Assumptions about readers background knowledge Readability Considerate vs. Inconsiderate Textbook Styles Instructional Recommendations for English Learners and Expository Texts Help students understand vocabulary and technical terms
Give them time to ask questions and discuss materials Use small group instruction Base instruction on regular classroom topic, but choose easier books Selecting Informational Texts for English Learners Texts should: Contain reference guides Be well organized
Have charts, graphs, diagrams, photos, and other illustrations Fit students background knowledge Have plenty of white space on the page Introduce new vocabulary in highlighted text (e.g., boldface) Critical Literacy and Informational Texts Questions to Consider Does the author present the dominant or minority point of view?
Is the language biased? What assumptions are formed about different groups? Are they unfair or harmful? Are there students in the class who represent a race that isnt mentioned in the book? What can the class do as a call to action? Assessment of Informational Texts: Informal Informal reading inventories (IRIs)
Rubrics Running records and miscue analysis Cloze/maze procedures Reading interest surveys Assessment of background knowledge Vocabulary
assessment Assessing readers growth Rubric for Reading Comprehension Assessment of Informational Texts: Formal and Critical Literacy Formal: Norm-referenced achievement tests
Intervention Strategies Focusing on Expository Comprehension To use before, during, and after reading: Textmasters Science experiments, crafts, and math games Read-alouds Partner Reading and Content Too (PRC2) Graphic organizers Lesson cycle (continued)
More Intervention Strategies Before, During, and After Reading K-W-L charts Guided reading strategy Inference training Question-answer relationships (QAR) Sample Graphic OrganizerDescription
Based on Box Turtle at Long Pond Sample Graphic OrganizerCause & Effect Based on Earthquakes and Volcanoes More Intervention Strategies To use before reading: Survey of text features Pre-reading plan (PreP) To use during reading:
Think-alouds Checklists ReQuest To use after reading: Scanning Learning logs Collaborative approach Question Connect Transform (QCT) for expository text
Learning Log Entry and Analysis Basic Skills Needed When Using the Internet Locate materials Identify important questions Use search engines Refine search words Read and evaluate
descriptions in search engine results Evaluate site or authors credibility Use the Back button Read and comprehend text Take notes from sites Synthesize material Cite sources
Some Useful Websites For Internet scavenger hunts: Internet Treasure Hunts for English learners (http://iteslj.org/th) Searching for Treasures on the Internet (www.education-world.com/ a_curr/ curr113.shtml)
A search on the term webquest For expository text: http://kids.nationalgeographic. com/kids www.kidsbiology.com www.readwritethink.org http://water.epa.gov/learn/kids www.sciencekids.com www.apples4teachers.com/
science www.brainpop.com/science www.kidsknowit.com Related Video Presentation You can see a video presentation of the author working with a student to complete a K-W-L cha rt (which is related to the activities on pages 246 247 of the chapter).
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