Colons -

Colons -

Colons By: Kylie McLoughlin, Alex Chi, Phoebe An, Lucas Brady, Nikhil Shah How to use a colon? A colon is used to initiate the listing of an item or a series of items.

- The first letter of the word following the colon cannot be capitalized. - What follows the colon is used to describe what is mentioned previously. - Two independent clauses can be joined with a colon when the second clause explains the first.

For example... You need the following groceries to bake a simple cake: flour, butter, eggs, sugar, and vanilla extract. She got what she worked for: she really deserved that raise.

Test Questions :) 1. For class tomorrow please bring the following items: Pencil, eraser, and pens. What is wrong with this sentence? You cannot have a capital P

following the colon. Test Questions 2. He kept repeating I want an A. 2. He kept repeating: I want an A.

Test Questions 3. Go to the store and buy the following items: apples, pears, and oranges. True OR False

True Semicolons By: Julia Osborne, Quinn Sullivan, Leila Abrahim, Lauren Whang, Kareem Shaheen Rules:

Semicolons are used to connect two independent clauses The independent clauses must be similar in thought Rules Cont.

Use if independent clauses are combined by a conjunctive adverb (ex. however,also,then) Example Sentences Bring any two items; however, shampoo

and conditioner are in short supply. Talk to me tomorrow; you can give me an answer then. We have paid our dues; we want to be in the club. Test Question #1

1) Which one of these sentences is using the semicolon incorrectly? A. We had too many fumbles; we lost the game. B. I am depressed; my life is very difficult. C. We were in class; and the teacher taught

us grammar. Test Question #2 2) What are semicolons used to connect?

A. two dependent clauses B. two independent clauses C. one independent and one dependent clause Test Question #3 3)Which statement is using semicolons

correctly? A. Joseph answered the question in class; he was wrong. B. Ryan was chewing gum in class and; he was caught. C. Kareem made a joke; but no one laughed.

Answers 1.C 2.B 3.A Apostrophes

Alexis Ferguson, Ethan Quan, Farhan Malik, Sophia Emmery, Kathryn Chiu Apostrophes are used to show possession of singular nouns, plural nouns, and are used in contractions.

Grammar Rules 1. Possession of Singular nouns a. Common nouns Common noun + apostrophe s ex) The womans dog

Grammar Rules b. Proper nouns Proper noun + apostrophe s ex) New Yorks population Grammar Rules 2. Possession of Plural Nouns

a. Common nouns ex) two cats toys Grammar Rules 3. Contractions ex) cant, wont, dont, couldve, shouldve, arent, lets

More Example Sentences 1.Singular-The trucks tires are flat 2.Plural- The basketball players jerseys 3.Contraction- Adele couldnt find her book Hyphens

By: Christin Lee, TJ Ige, Ryan Samani, Josef Govednik, Tristen Taylor What are Hyphens? Punctuation mark: - Hyphens are used as a mark to combine two words that have a combined meaning and to show that the

joined words are used as one single unit. They can be referred to as joiners NOT THE SAME AS DASHES Hyphen Rules Compound adjectives Adjectives before a noun represent a single idea

Ex: state-of-the-art design However, not used for very or ly adverbs Ex: Incorrect: very-expensive, finely-tuned No spaces before/after hyphens Ex: Incorrect: 1 - 10 people, Correct: 1-10 people Examples

1) Mr. Doctor just got a new state-of-the-art computer. 2) Their three-year old son starts preschool in the fall. 3) Thirty-eight cookies were sold in the bake sale. 1) The hyphen shows the compound adjective state-of-theart. 2) The hyphen tells the ages of people and things. 3) The hyphen is used in the plural number thirty-eight. Quiz!!!

Are these correct? Find errors if not! 1. We broke the very - expensive car. 2. Only twenty two people came to Josephs baseball game. 3. Kareem often acts like a nine-year old. Test Questions Name the rule

1. Amys flowers were dying because she did not water them. 2. The rabbits food cost a lot of money. 3. He didnt take out the trash. Em Dashes

by:Felicia,Drew,Erika,Ryan Definition A dash is a mark used in grammar to show a break in thought. Sets off a word or phrase after an independent clause.

Able to take the place of a comma, colon, and semicolon Example Sentences 1) The girl wished for three things-- musical tickets, books, and ink pens. 2) I need to prepare for history, science, and english-- I need a

break. 3) The voices rose and settled to a slight murmur-- then, silence. Test Questions 1. Ive been outside for so long and it is very sunny I need sunscreen.

2. The girl is afraid of two things -- spiders and bees. The girl is afraid -- of two things, spiders and bees. 3. T/F: The dash cannot be used in place of a comma, colon, or semicolon. answers 1. Ive been outside for so long and it is very sunny-- I need

sunscreen. 2. The girl is afraid of two things -- spiders and bees. 3. False Parentheses McCloud P4 Miyuki, Kosei, Lillian, Michelle

Rule One Parentheses are used to separate words as an aside or to clarify Rule 2

a. The only time a period will be in the parentheses is if an entire separate sentence is in parentheses. Examples Please read the document. (Youll be amazed.) Please read the document (youll be amazed).

B. Correct punctuation is required both inside the parentheses and outside of it, because they can be different. Example Incorrect: You are late (arent you)? Correct: You are late (arent you?).

Rule 3 Anything in parentheses is not part of the subject of the sentence. Example for Rule 3

Correct: Joe (and Jane) was going to the store. Incorrect: Joe (and Jane) were going to the store. Rule 4 Commas are more likely to

follow parentheses in a sentence Ex: After arriving at school (already running late), I slipped and fell down the stairs. Brackets

By Daniella Vogliotti, Timothy Chan, Emily Nguyen, and Kanon Kitazume Brackets [ ]: A pair of marks that is used to separate context and close off words.

Rule #1 Brackets are used to comment/explain a quotation They [the band] played really well yesterday.

Rule #2 In a quote that contains a spelling or grammar mistake or confusing material, insert sic enclosed in brackets The people have never eated [sic] an

apple Rule #3 In a quotation, use brackets to maintain consistency and formality of the surrounding sentences

[T]he firefighter couldnt find his equipment. Test 1. If brackets are used at the end of a sentence, where should the period be placed? a. Before the bracket

b. Inside the bracket c. After the bracket Test 2. Is this sentence correct: He [the manager] had to speak to the client. a. Yes

b. no Test 3. True or false: sic is used for quote that contains a spelling error or confusing material a. True b. False

Test Questions 1.Correctly place the comma in this sentence: After Rob fell down the stairs (in front of everyone) his pants fell down. 2. Identify the subject in the sentence: Bob (accompanied by his dog) was welcomed

home. Test Questions (cont.) 3. Identify the error in this sentence. I fell into the pool this morning. I was pushed by my brother (who was angry at me.)

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