Clues of GRB progenitors - Indian Academy of Sciences

Clues of GRB progenitors - Indian Academy of Sciences

Optical telescopes: An oldest eye to the Universe Extremely valuable for Astrophysical studies. As old as human civilization as our Eye acts as optical telescope, detector and analyzer. On 30 Nov 1609, Galileo400 years--IYA09 Recent developments in computers, electronics and in other areas have contributed significantly to the growth of optical telescopes, detectors and image analysis. Ram Sagar 02/09/20 Optical Telescopes 1

ASTROPHYSICS (= Physics of celestial bodies) Physical & Chemical processes and characteristics of galaxies, stars, planetary system, interstellar matter etc. Giant natural laboratory : 10 gm/cc 12 temperature ( 106 108 K) ; density Mass Range 0.1 100 Msun 1012 1013 Msun

stars galaxies 1 Msun = 2 x 1033 gm Neutron Star 10-24 gm/cc Interstellar matter Planetary orbits are elliptical 1605-1609 Johannes Kepler

Some Contributions to Physics; Pure Science Newtons interpretations of observations of planetary laws of motions and mechanics; development of calculus General theory of relativity Concept of nuclear fusion Cosmology and high energy particle physics Nobel prize in Physics:- H. A. Bethe in 1967; M. Ryle & A. Hewish in 1974; A.A. Penzias & R.W. Wilson in 1978; S. Chandrasekhar & W.A. Flower in 1983; J. H. Taylor & R. A. Hulse in 1993; R. Davis Jr., M. Koshiba & R. (8 during last 50 yrs); Extremely valuable for knowledge &

Society Giacconi in 2002; J. C. Mather & G. C. Smoot in 2006; Smith group in 2011 ASTRONOMICAL DISTANCES Star p Parallax Second or Parsec (pc) 1 pc = 3.086 1016 m = 3.26 light year = 206,265 A.U. 1 light year = 9.46 1015 m = 63,240 A.U. Distance (pc) = 1 / p (where p is in arcsec) 1 A.U. = 1.5 x 10 m sun

Earth Luminosity and distance parameters of a few celestial objects Lsun = 4 1033 erg/s, Solar constant = 1.38 106 erg/s/cm2 ~ 2 cal / min / cm2 Object Luminosity in Solar units Distance Intrinsic Apparent 1

10-10 10-14 500 Ls Globular Cluster 1 22 3 5 Bright Cepheid 4

10-16 190 kLy Supernova 8 10 17 10-19 10-18 10-16 110 MLy

Sun Sirius Quasar GRB 8.8 Ly 75 kLy 1,420 MLy 32,600 MLy Observational Science Distances enormous Thousands of Ly

Star Interstellar space Earth atmosphere Attenuation Earth Degradation of point source images Purpose of an optical telescope 1. Angular resolution or Resolving Power - indicates ability to see fine details

- limited by two factors . Diffraction Resolving Power (RP) = 1.22 D = 14/ D (in cm) At 5500 OPTICAL (can be improved by using a larger size objective) . Environment (telescope images are degraded by the blurring effect of Earths atmosphere and light pollution (can be improved by placing the telescope on top a mountain hill with very smooth air or in space) Resolving Power (RP) = 1.22 D = 14/ D (in cm) At 5500

Resolving Power : Contd arth Atmosphere:- Seeing = 1 to 2; Best values 0.3 to 0.5 Adaptive optics and interferometry provides better RP R E S 0.1 O L U 1 T I O

N ( ) 10 Hubble Space Telescope (2.4 m) Angular Resolution Ground Herschel (1.2 m) Galileo (~ 4 cm) Palomar

(5 m) Human eye 100 02/09/20 1400 1600 Optical Telescopes Year 1800

2000 9 02/09/20 Optical Telescopes 10 Star Forming Regions Purpose of optical telescopes Collect more photons than the unaided eye light gathering power

Light gathering power (A) = T(D/S)2 = 25 10 4 * T for a 4 meter size Telescope D diameter of the telescope S - diameter of the pupil of eye TLosses due to optics and detector S/N (t*A)/() t --- integration time B() ---- sky brightness -- angle formed by image 02/09/20 Optical Telescopes 12

2-m HCT, Hanle Alt = 4.5 km, 2000 1.2-m at Mt Abu Alt = 1.7 km, 1980 2-m at Girwali Alt = 1 km, 2006 1.3-m DFOT 2.5km alt, 2010 2.34 m VBT, Kavalur

Altitude = 0.8 km 1.2-m Japal Rangapur Alt = 0.7 km, 1972 1-m ST, Nainital Alt = 2 km 1972 Milky Way : schematic edge-on view Our locations Geocentric <1609 Heliocentric

28,000 Ly Off center In the Universe ?? About 2 X 3 sky Full of galaxies 95 % matter is unknown Dark matter ?? Optical/near-IR telescopes Period India World

Before 1960 1960 1980 ---1-2.34 m 1-5 m (USA & Europe) 4-6 m (CFHT,UKRT,AAT, Russia 6-m) 1980 2000 20002010 ------HST; 10-16 m (Keck,VLT) 2 m (HCT; Subaru, HET, SALT, GTC IGO ) SALT

After 3.6 m & 4 m 24-42 m 30 m TMT 2010 Latest Major Indian Initiatives in Astrophysics ASTROSAT Visible, UV and X-ray astronomy The first Indian multi-wavelength astronomy satellite launched on Sep 28, 2015 with 5 instruments and a life time of ~5 years. LARGE OPTICAL TELESCOPES 4-meter ILMT by 2016 with Belgium, Poland & Canada

3.6-meter Indian optical telescope installed in May 2015 at Devasthal, Nainital (Jointly with Belgium) Participate in 30-meter size telescope (10%) and built 8-10 meter class optical telescope in India by 2030 Square KM Array Radio Telescope by 2025 (10%) LIGO; Indian Neutrino Observatory; NLST etc. ASTROSAT Mission UV & X-Ray Space Observatory (Cost ~ Rs. 500 Crore) The First Indian Multi-wavelength Astronomical Satellite

3.6 m Project Schedule (2007-2015) Project Cost ~ Rs.150 Crore (BELGIUM Contribution is ~ 10 % => 7 % observing time) Key players The telescope is manufactured by Advanced Mechanical & Optical System (AMOS), Liege in Belgium. Observatory Control system and data archiving are being developed by ARIES. The mirror blank was purchased from SCHOTT, Germany. It is 3.7 meter in diameter & 165 mm in thickness. It was figured and polished by Lytkarino Optical Glass Factory (LZOS), Moscow, Russia. The dome/enclosure is being completed by Pedvak & PPS, India. The aluminizing unit was delivered by HHV, India.

As-built Telescope Height : 13m Width : 7 m Weight : 150 ton AMOS workshop, Feb 2012 Telescope installed and first image taken in May 2015 URANUS and its Rings (Discovered on 13 March 1781 by William Herschel)

Diameter : 52640 Km (4.1 times Earth) Mass : 14.5 times Earth Density : 1.1 gm/cc Surface Gravity : 0.9 times Earth

Distance from Sun : 19.2 AU Distance from Earth : 17 to 21 AU Orbital Period : 84 years Rotation Period : 17h 14m Known Moons : 26 Rings : Present Atmosphere : >1000 times Earth (82% H2, 15% He,2% CH4) Hale-Bopp Comet (Dust and Ion Tails are Visible) Planetary Nebulae Chemical compositions: Fe etc Using spectroscopic and large size

optical telescopes Where life can exist? Human life can not exist on the surface of stars as its temperature ranges from few to 50 thousands deg C and surfaces are gaseous Places like MOON are not conducive for human life as there is no atmosphere (escape velocity) Knowledge of Solar system indicates that planetary systems around other stars should exist so that some form of life can exist on the planets Theory of Solar system formation indicates that other stars should also have Planetary systems

Evidence for planetary system around stars located within 1000 ly More than 3000 Planets around ~400 stars are observed This is one of the major discovery in the area of Astrophysics during last decade Life (may be human also) can exist beyond Earth. How to communicate with them? Efforts are on but problems are enormous. It could be due to language, culture etc Giant Segmented Mirror Telescopes (GSMTs) 24.5-m GMT 30-m TMT

39-m E-ELT In 1997, Indian Astronomers led by ARIES, IIA & IUCAA started thinking about participation. DST also took initiative. In June 2010, DST approved Indias participation and also provided seed money for capability demonstration. In March 2012, DST and DAE decided to set up India TMT coordination centre (ITCC) at IIA, Bengaluru. In Oct 2014, India signed agreement (~Rs 15,000 Crores) 27/25 Thanks 28 India TMT role in the project (~ 10 % cost ~ Rs1500 Crore)

Much of the participation is through in-kind, we chose to provide most of the M1 control systems including a portion of segments M1 polishing M1CS: Actuators Edge Sensors Segment Support Assembly (SSAs) Observatory Control Software Instrument Development IRMS India TMT work Packages: M1 and M1CS Segment (115-150) Actuators

(1476) Segment Support Assembly(492) Edge Sensors (~3000) 30 Summary and conclusions Modern GB techniques and space HST have provided us with unprecedented angular resolution and has brought the Universe 10 times closure. CCDs have virtually become an optical detector - capable of detecting a billionth times fainter than naked eye stars. With innovative technologies like thin & segmented mirrors techniques and advancements in computers and electronics, the telescopes have become cheaper than they were 30-40 years

back. As a result Ground based optical telescopes as big as ~ 40 meter are being designed and ~ 100 meter are under planning. Hence it always require cutting edge of the latest technology. Enormous potential for discovery due to vastness of the Universe. It could be more than 1 everyday. Thanks for your attention

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