I. The universe would be nothing were it not for life and all that lives must be fed. ~Brillat-Savarin, The physiology of taste Defining Cuisine ~ Terroir Gastronomic Identity Introduction to Classical Pairings Gastronomy
Gastronomy is the study of relationship between culture and food The Key Elements of The Gastronomic Identity Concept The concept of gastronomic identity illustrates the influences of the environment (geography and climate) and culture (history and ethnic influences) on prevailing taste components, textures and flavors in food and drink.
Elements that define Culinary Identity Dominant Ingredients Geograp hy Recipe s Histor y
Ethnic Diversit y Techniques Presentation Prevailin g Flavors Culinary Etiquett e Source: R. Danhi. What is Your Countrys Culinary Identity? Culinology Currents
(Winter 2003): 4-5. Terroir (/twa/ French), Literally wa/ French), Literally the Soil. A sense of Place embodied in a wine. an umbrella term for a subtle interaction of natural factors and human skills that define the characteristics of each wine-growing area. Terroir The factors include: Climate Geology & Soil Aspect & Altitude Vineyard and vinification
The Wine of Kings, The King of Wines Cool climate Chalky limestone soils Cold deep chalky cellars 321 villages Crus 300 year history of bubbly 2000 years of grape growing 90 miles to Paris Strategic location Its just Dirt., Bill Jekel
The Impact of Climate Zones On Wine Characteristics Climatic factors impact fruit ripeness, acidity levels, alcohol levels, tannin, and flavors. Cool Climate Zones Cool Regions: Often result in white wine flavors of apples and pears (cool climate tree fruits). Create red wine aromas and flavors
that can be described as red fruits like cranberries, red currants or red cherries. Warm Climate Zones Moderate Regions Result in flavors such as citrus, peaches, apricots, nectarines or melons for white wines black cherries, black currants, plums or blueberries for red wines. Warm Climate Zones Warm Regions: Results in white wines that have
tropical fruit flavors such as mangos, pineapple, papayas, guavas or bananas. Produce red wines that can take on flavors of dried and heavier fruits like raisins, figs or prunes. The Climate Climatologist recognize three levels of climate A Macroclimate is the overall climate of an
area The Rhine Valley or Walla Walla A Mesoclimate is the climate of a small area Typically an individual vineyard Ciel du Cheval A Microclimate is the climate that exists immediately within and around the grapevine canopy Heat Summation Units
Calculated as the total number of days when the average temperature is greater than 50 F (10 C). This is based on a 10-year average of temperatures If an average was 60 F (60 - 50 = 10), this would provide 10 degree days per day. The coldest regions are about 1,700 degree days and the warmest of 5,200 degree days
(calculated in Fahrenheit) . Degree-Day Equivalents in Celsius and Fahrenheit Region Celsius Heat Summation Units Fahrenheit Heat Summation Units
I 1390 2500 II 1391-1670 2501-3000 III 1671-1940
3001-3500 IV 1941-2220 3501-4000 V 2221 4001
Source: R.S. Jackson. Wine Science, 2nd ed. (2000, San Diego, CA: Academic Press). Climate Zones Based On Heat Summation Units Region 1: climate zones less than 2,500 units. New World Examples: Willamette Valley (OR)
Old World Examples: Champagne, Baden. Region New 2: 2501and 3000 units. World Examples: Adelaide Hills,Walla Walla Old World Examples: Hermitage, Piedmont. Climate Zones Based On Heat Summation Units Continued
Region 3: 3001 and 3500 units. New World Examples: Red Mountain (WA), Margaret River (AUS). Old World Examples: Rhone region, Tuscany. Region New 4: 3501 and 4000 units.
World Examples: San Joaquin, Sicily. Old World Examples: Rioja, Ribera Del Duero. Region New 5: 4001 or more. World Examples: Stanislaus, South Climate Zone Map
The Role of Appellations Refers to the location where agricultural products are grown. Sanctioned by a government or trade association to define procedures in order to guarantee quality and genuineness.
A wine appellation may be a large region or a single vineyard. Stated on a wine bottle label and refers to the specific geographic location. An example would be the official French system of appellation dorigine controle. New World vs. Old World New World:
U.S. Australia Argentina Canada Chile New Zealand South Africa.
Old World: Europe France Italy Spain
Germany Greece Hungary Austria Switzerland. New World vs. Old World New World Napa Cabernet Barossa Shiraz Mendoza Malbec
New Zealand Sauvignon blanc Old World Bordeaux Cotes du Rhone Chianti Sancere Wine Traditions and Climate
Cool Moderate Warm Cool Climate Old/New World Traditions Growing Season: cool/less sunny Wine Fruit Style: lean White Wine Fruit Flavors: apple/pear
Red Wine Fruit Flavors: cranberries, redcurrants, red cherries Overall Wine Style: subtle/elegant Old World Examples of Wine and Food Matches: Red Burgundy with Boeuf Bourguignon, Sancerre and Goat Cheese. New World Examples of Wine and Food Matches: Oregon Pinot Noir and Wild Salmon, New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc and a fusion of influences.
Moderate Climate Old/New World Traditions Growing Season: temperate/moderately sunny Wine Fruit Style: ripe/juicy White Wine Fruit Flavors: citrus,
peaches, apricots, nectarines, melons Red Wine Fruit Flavors: black cherries, black currants, plums, blueberries, blackberries Overall Wine Style: medium intensity Old World Examples of Wine and Food Matches: Beaujolais and Salade Lyonnaise, Barolo and Tagiatelle. New World Examples of Wine and Food Matches: Buttery Chardonnay with Dungeness Crab, Zinfandel with Grilled Warm Climate
Old/New World Traditions Growing Season: warm/very sunny Wine Fruit Style: overripe/lush White Wine Fruit Flavors: mangos, pineapples, papayas, guavas, bananas Red Wine Fruit Flavors: figs, raisins,
prunes Overall Wine Style: bold/intense Old World Examples of Wine and Food Matches: Nero d'Avola and Spaghetti with Meat Sauce. New World Examples of Wine and Food Matches: Shiraz with Grilled Pepper Steak, Malbec with Beef Empanadas. Food to a large extent is what holds a society together and eating is closely linked to deep
spiritual experiences." Peter Farb and George Armelagos 'Consuming Passions: The Anthropology of Eating' Language (noun) - the speech of a country, region, or group of people, including its diction, syntax, and grammar Cuisine Cuisine (from French cuisine, meaning "cooking; culinary art; kitchen"; itself from Latin coquina, meaning the same; itself
from the Latin verb coquere, meaning "to cook") Literally whos cooking what in the kitchen What Makes food a Cuisine A cuisine is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a place of origin Heavily influenced by religious practices Trade and migratory patterns of humans
Changes in agriculture Commons issues Food: The Impact of Geography and Climate The items available in our environment affect flavor preferences, eating habits,
recipes and dining etiquette. Historically, food has been consumed near the place of production creation. The enjoyment of eating good food is dependent on cultural preferences for specific flavor profiles. Geography and climate also impact eating habits based on physiological characteristics. The Impact of Trade On Gastronomic Identity
Trade and immigration policies have had a substantial impact on cuisine, food products, flavors profiles and dining etiquette over the course of several centuries. The bartering of and commercial trading of food products between countries has developed over time. Travelers (of the past and modern day) contact with other people and regional gastronomy impacts gastronomic traditions.
Trade, Immigration and Adaptation The Chop Suey Factor adaptation of Chinese immigrant cooking styles to the different ingredients available in North America What is Italian Food? Gnocchi, Polenta, Spaghetti Marinara
Who, What, Where, Why, How Classical Pairings Classic Combinations All the classic pairings developed from the same soil and have not just stood the test of time they have been refined over hundreds of years. Some Classic Matches
Goat Cheese and Sancerre Foie Gras and Sauternes Roquefort and Sauternes Crme Brle or Crme Caramel and
Sauternes Charcuterie and Cru Beaujolais Steak and Cabernet Sauvignon Some more Classic Matches Oysters and Muscadet sur Lie or Chablis
Stilton and Port Caviar and Champagne Roasted Lamb and Red Bordeaux Coq au Vin and Red Burgundy
Chocolate and Banyuls Some More More Pizza and Chianti Barbecue and California Zinfandel
Gravad Lax and Kabinett Riesling Sushi and Kabinett Riesling or Champagne Crab or Lobster and Viognier Truffles and Barolo
Deconstructing Classical Matches Bordeaux, France: Sauternes and Foie Gras. Primary matches - richness to richness, wine acidity and fattiness of the Foie Gras. Beaujolais, France: Beaujolais with Pate Campagne and Beaujolais wine. Relatively low in tannin - this humble wine works great with humble and down-to earth foods.
Loire, France: Pouilly-Fum and Crottin de Chavignol (goat cheese). Perfect tangy counterpoints - goat cheese and high acid wines made with Sauvignon Blanc. Deconstructing Classical Matches
Piedmont, Italy: White truffle (dishes) with Barbaresco and Barolo. Earthy and intense dishes made with white truffle paired with intense Nebbiolo wines. Tuscany, Italy: Bistecca alla fiorentina and Chianti. A large slab of grilled beef served with wine made from Sangiovese grapes. Fatty, full bodied food with tannic reds. Rioja, Spain: Wild mushrooms sizzling in garlicky olive oil served with red Rioja. The earthy character of the dish with the Old World earthiness in Spanish Rioja. Deconstructing Classical
Matches Jerez, Spain: Gambas al Ajillo Garlic shrimp with Manzanilla shrimp sauted in olive oil, dried red pepper, and lots of garlic paired with the salty, briny olive-scented characteristics of Manzanilla. Portugal: Port and roasted nuts or Blue cheeses (stilton, gorgonzola, etc.) are a classic contrasting match. The saltiness of
the blue cheese (or nuts) contrasts with the sweetness of Port. Germany: High acid Rieslings and every meat dish imaginable. Made with no oak and varying levels of sweetness make them the most versatile white wine with Loire Valley Map Muscadet sur Lie
Melon de Borgogne grape Loire Valley region of France Light bodied, crisp, dry white Lees aging Unracked Maximum 12% alcohol by volume Best consumed young Yeasty, briny quality mirrors that of the oysters Pairs with: mussels, mackerel, salads, herbed egg dishes and light appetizers
Sancerre Sancerre Sauvignon Blanc grape Eastern part of Loire Dry, highly aromatic, excellent minerality, reminiscent of gooseberries and green apple Small appellation produces world class wines Almost perfect food wine, pairs with almost anything. especially good with Goat cheese, seafood,
shellfish, chicken and game birds Burgundy Cru Beaujolais Gamay Grape Beaujolais region of Burgundy, France Medium bodied, fruity red
10 Cru designations Brouilly, Cote du Brouilly, Chenas, Chiroubles, Fleurie, Julienas, Morgon, Moulin Vent, Regnie, St. Amour Pairs with: rabbit, wild mushrooms, sausages, baked ham, steak tartare and stuffed peppers Porto Warres Otima 10 Yr Porto Classic Porto from old house Touriga Nacional, Touriga Francesca High strength grape spirit (95%) is added to partially fermented must to make a resulting wine of (15-20%)
Excellent with chocolate and blue cheeses Stilton The Wines Champagne Muscadet Sancerre/ Poulliy Fume Beajolaise Porto
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