Civil Rights

Civil Rights

CIVIL RIGHTS LEGAL ACTIVISM Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954)- Supreme Court case that overturned Plessy v Ferguson; said that separate but equal is inherently unequal; called for schools to be integrated Plessy v Ferguson (1896) Supreme Court Cases that established separate but equal; upheld social and legal policies of segregation Mapp v. Ohio (1961)- Supreme Court applies the 4th Amendment rights of privacy and protection against unreasonable search and seizures to the states Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)- Supreme Court case which ruled that states are required by the 6th Amendment to provide an attorney to defendants in criminal cases who cannot afford their own Miranda v. Arizona (1966)- Supreme Court case that established the Miranda Warnings that all people accused of a crime in the US must be informed of their

rights. Ernesto Miranda was not informed of his rights and was initially convicted based on information gathered when he didnt know his rights Loving v. Virginia (1967)- Supreme Court case that invalidates all laws prohibiting interracial marriage LEGAL ACTIVISM Civil Rights Act of 1964- outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.. It prohibits unequal application of voter registration requirements, racial segregation in schools, employment, and public accommodations Civil Rights Act of 1968- known as the fair housing act; legislation in the US that provided for equal housing opportunities regardless of race, religion, or national origin and made it a federal crime to by force or by threat of force,

injure, intimidate, or interfere with anyoneby reason of their race, color, religion, or national origin. Signed by Lyndon Johnson during the King Assassination riots Voting Rights Act of 1965- prohibits discrimination in voting; prevents the use of literacy tests, and grandfather clauses; required the provision of bilingual ballot materials and voter assistance for those who were illiterate 24th Amendment- the rights of citizens in all elections shall not be limited due to failure to pay poll taxes or taxes CIVIL RIGHTS Activism, new legislation, and the Supreme Court advance equal rights for African Americans. But disagreements among civil rights groups lead to a violent period for the civil rights movement.

Section 1: Taking on Segregation Activism and a series of Supreme Court decisions advance equal rights for African Americans in the 1950s and 1960s. THE SEGREGATION SYSTEM a.Plessy v. Ferguson i. Civil Rights Act of 1875 act outlawed segregation ii.In 1883, all-white Supreme Court declares Act unconstitutional iii.1896 Plessy v. Ferguson ruling: separate but equal constitutional iv.Many states pass Jim Crow laws separating the races 1. Facilities for blacks always inferior to those for whites b.Segregation Continues into the 20th Century i. After Civil War, African Americans go north to escape racism ii.North: housing in all-black areas, whites resent job competition

c. A Developing Civil Rights Movement i. WW II creates job opportunities for African Americans 1. Need for fighting men makes armed forces end discriminatory policies 2. FDR ends government, war industries discrimination 3. Returning black veterans fight for civil rights at home WHERE HAVE YOU SEEN THIS POSE BEFORE? nS4cMY EMMETT TILL

55d-e77a2c8d005f/ CHALLENGING SEGREGATION IN a.The NAACP Legal Strategy COURT i. Professor Charles Hamilton Houston leads NAACP legal campaign ii.Focuses on most glaring inequalities of segregated public education iii.Places team of law students under Thurgood Marshall 1. win 29 out of 32 cases argued before Supreme Court b.Brown v. Board of Education

i. Marshalls greatest victory is Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka 1. In 1954 case, Court unanimously strikes down school segregation 9-c68fad5c35e4/ REACTION TO THE BROWN DECISION a.Resistance to School Desegregation i. Within 1 year, over 500 school districts desegregate ii.Some districts, state officials, pro-white groups actively resist iii.Court hands Brown II, orders desegregation at all deliberate speed iv.Eisenhower at first refuses to enforce compliance; considers it impossible

b.Crisis in Little Rock i. Since 1948, Arkansas integrating state university, private groups ii.Gov. Orval Faubus has National Guard turn away black students iii.Little Rock Nine face abusive crowd when they tried to enter school iv.Eisenhower has Nat. Guard, paratroopers supervise school attendance v. African-American students harassed by whites at school all year c. 1957 Civil Rights Actfederal government power over schools, voting THE MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT a.Boycotting Segregation i. 1955 NAACP officer Rosa Parks arrested for not giving up seat on bus

ii.Montgomery Improvement Association formed, organizes bus boycott iii.Elect 26-year-old Baptist pastor Martin Luther King, Jr. leader b.Walking for Justice i. African Americans file lawsuit, boycott buses, use carpools, walk ii.Get support from black community, outside groups, sympathetic whites iii.1956, Supreme Court outlaws bus segregation MARTIN LUTHER KING AND THE SCLC a.Changing the World with Soul Force i. King calls his brand of nonviolent resistance soul

force 1.civil disobedience, massive demonstrations ii.King remains nonviolent in face of violence after Brown decision b.From the Grassroots Up i. King, others found Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) ii.By 1960, African-American students think pace of change too slow 1.Join Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) THE MOVEMENT SPREADS

a.Demonstrating for Freedom i. SNCC adopts nonviolence, but calls for more confrontational strategy ii.Influenced by Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) to use sit-ins: 1.refuse to leave segregated lunch counter until served iii.First sit-in at Greensboro, NC Woolworths shown nationwide on TV iv.In spite of abuse, arrests, movement grows, spreads to North v.Late 1960, lunch counters desegregated in 48 cities in 11 states THE SIT IN AT

WOOLWORTH S SECTION 2 The Triumphs of a Crusade Civil rights activists break through racial barriers. Their activism prompts landmark legislation. RIDING FOR FREEDOM a.COREs Freedom Rides i.1961, CORE tests Court decision banning interstate bus segregation ii.Freedom ridersblacks, whites

sit, use station facilities together iii.Riders brutally beaten by Alabama mobs; one bus firebombed NEW VOLUNTEERS AND ARRIVAL OF i. Bus companies refuse to continue carrying CORE freedom FEDERAL MARSHALS riders ii.SNCC volunteers from TN replace CORE riders; are violently stopped iii.Robert Kennedy pressures bus company to continue

transporting riders 1. Alabama officials dont give promised protection; mob attacks riders A. Newspapers throughout nation denounce beatings 2. JFK sends 400 U.S. marshals to protect riders 3. Attorney general, Interstate Commerce Commission act: A. ban segregation in all interstate travel facilities STANDING FIRM a.Integrating Ole Miss i.1962, federal court rules James Meredith may enroll at U of MS ii.Governor Ross Barnett refuses to let Meredith

register iii.JFK orders federal marshals to escort Meredith to registrars office iv.Barnett makes radio appeal; thousands of white demonstrators riot v.Federal officials accompany Meredith to classes, protect his parents a.April 1963, SCLC demonstrate to desegregate Birmingham i. King arrested, writes Letter from Birmingham Jail ii.TV news show police attacking child marchersfire hoses, dogs, clubs iii.Continued protests, economic boycott, bad press end segregation b.Kennedy Takes a Stand i. June, JFK sends troops to force Gov. Wallace to desegregate U of AL

ii. NAACPs Medgar Evers murdered; hung juries lead to killers release HEADING INTO BIRMINGHAM tps:// a.Marching to Washington i. The Dream of Equality 1.August 1963, over 250,000 people converge on Washington 2.Speakers demand immediate passage of civil rights bill 3.King gives I Have a Dream speech b.More Violence i. September, 4 Birmingham girls killed when bomb thrown into church ii.LBJ signs Civil Rights Act of 1964 1.prohibits discrimination because of race, religion, gender SECTION 3 Challenges and Changes in the Movement Disagreements among civil rights groups and the rise of black nationalism create a violent period in the fight for civil rights. FIGHTING FOR VOTING RIGHTS

a. Freedom Summer i. Freedom SummerCORE, SNCC project to register blacks to vote in MS ii. Volunteers beaten, killed; businesses, homes, churches burned b. A New Political Party i. Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party formed to get seat in MS party ii. Fannie Lou Hamervoice of MFDP at National Conventionwins support iii.LBJ fears losing Southern white vote, pressures leaders to compromise iv. MFDP and SNCC supporters feel betrayed c. The Selma Campaign i. 1965, voting rights demonstrator killed in Selma, AL ii. King leads 600 protest marchers; TV shows police violently stop them

iii.Second march, with federal protection, swells to 25,000 people d. Voting Rights Act of 1965 i. Congress finally passes Voting Rights Act of 1965 ii. Stops literacy tests, allows federal officials to enroll voters iii. Increases black voter enrollment a39a4176b63/ AFRICAN AMERICANS SEEK GREATER EQUALITY a.Northern Segregation i. De facto segregation exists by practice, custom; problem in North ii.De jure segregation is segregation required by law iii.WW II black migration to Northern cities results in white flight

iv.1960s, most urban blacks live in slums; landlords ignore ordinances 1. Black unemployment twice as high as white v. Many blacks angry at treatment received from white police officers b.Urban Violence Erupts i. Mid-1960s, numerous clashes between white authority, black civilians-many result in riots ii.Many whites baffled by African-American rage 1. Blacks want, need equal opportunity in jobs, housing, education 2. Money for War on Poverty, Great Society redirected to Vietnam War NEW LEADERS VOICE a.African-American Solidarity DISCONTENT

i. Nation of Islam, Black Muslims, advocate blacks separate from whites 1. believe whites source of black problems ii.Malcolm Xcontroversial Muslim leader, speaker; gets much publicity 1. Frightens whites, moderate blacks; resented by other Black Muslims b.Ballots or Bullets? i. Pilgrimage to Mecca changes Malcolm Xs attitude toward whites ii.Splits with Black Muslims; is killed in 1965 while giving speech c. Black Power i. CORE, SNCC become more militant; SCLC pursues traditional tactics ii.Stokely Carmichael, head of SNCC, calls for Black Power: 1. African Americans control own lives, communities, without whites

d.Black Panthers https://dcpsmd.discovery os/fd72ae80-a644-4ce6-8 9c9-a2a532e55e7c/ i. Black Panthers fight police brutality, want black self-sufficiency ii.Preach ideas of Mao Zedong; have violent confrontations with police iii.Provide social services in urban neighborhoods, win popular support 1968- A TURNING POINT IN CIVIL a.Kings Death RIGHTS i. King objects to Black Power movement, preaching of violence ii.Seems to sense own death in Memphis speech to striking workers iii.Is shot, dies the following day, April 4, 1968 b.Reactions to Kings Death i. Kings death leads to worst urban rioting in U.S. history - over 100 cities affected c. Robert Kennedy assassinated two months later LEGACY OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS a. Causes of Violence

MOVEMENT i. Kerner Commission names racism as main cause of urban violence b. Civil Rights Gains i. Civil Rights Act of 1968 prohibits discrimination in housing ii.More black students finish high school, college; get better jobs iii.Greater pride in racial identity leads to Black Studies iv.More African-American participation in movies, TV v. Increased voter registration results in more black elected officials c. Unfinished Work i. Forced busing, higher taxes, militancy, riots reduce white support ii.White flight reverses much progress toward school integration iii.Unemployment, poverty higher than for whites iv.Affirmative actionextra effort to hire, enroll discriminated groups

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