Chemistry: Matter and Change

Chemistry: Matter and Change

Substituted Hydrocarbons and Their Reactions Section 22.1 Alkyl Halides and Aryl Halides Section 22.2 Alcohols, Ethers, and Amines Section 22.3 Carbonyl Compounds Section 22.4 Other Reactions of Organic Compounds

Section 22.5 Polymers Click a hyperlink or folder tab to view the corresponding slides. Exit Section 22.1 Alkyl Halides and Aryl Halides Define functional group,

and give examples. Compare and contrast alkyl and aryl halide structures. Evaluate the boiling points of organic halides. aliphatic compound: a

nonaromatic hydrocarbon, such as an alkane, an alkene, or an alkyne Section 22.1 Alkyl Halides and Aryl Halides (cont.)

functional group plastic halocarbon substitution reaction

alkyl halide halogenation aryl halide A halogen atom can replace a hydrogen atom in some hydrocarbons.

Functional Groups In an organic molecule, a functional group is an atom or group of atoms that always reacts in a certain way. Addition of a functional group to a hydrocarbon always produces a substance with different chemical and physical

properties. Double and triple bonds between carbon atoms are considered functional groups. Functional Groups (cont.) Organic Compounds Containing Halogens Any organic compound that contains a

halogen substituent is called a halocarbon. An alkyl halide is an organic compound containing a halogen atom covalently bonded to an aliphatic carbon atom. An aryl halide is an organic compound containing a halogen bonded to an aromatic group.

Organic Compounds Containing Halogens (cont.) In naming halocarbons, a prefix indicates which halogen is present. If there is more than a single halogen, they are

listed alphabetically. Organic Compounds Containing Halogens (cont.) Halocarbons have higher boiling points because they have an increasing tendency to form temporary dipoles. Dipoles attract each other, and require more

energy to separate. A plastic is a polymer that can be heated and molded while relatively soft. Organic Compounds Containing Halogens (cont.) Substitution Reactions

Nearly all synthetic organic compounds begin with petroleum. A substitution reaction is one in which one atom or a group of atoms in a molecule is replaced by another atom or group of atoms Hydrogen atoms in an alkane can be replaced by atoms of halogens in a process called halogenation.

Substitution Reactions (cont.) Substitution Reactions (cont.) Once halogenated, alkanes can undergo further reactions. Reacting an alkyl halide with a basic solution results in replacement of the halogen atom

with an OH group to form an alcohol. Section 22.1 Assessment Which of the following is NOT an alkyl halide? A. 2-fluorobutane B. 1,3-dichlorobenzene C. sodium chloride

D. bromoethane 0% A. A B. B C. C 0% 0%

0% D. D Section 22.1 Assessment An alkane with one or more halogen substituents is called what? A. aryl halide B. metal halide

C. chlorofluorocarbon D. alkyl halide 0% A. A B. B C. C 0%

0% 0% D. D Section 22.2 Alcohols, Ethers, and Amines Identify the functional groups that characterize alcohols, ethers, and

amines. Draw the structures of alcohols, ethers, and amines. Discuss the properties and uses of alcohols, ethers, and amines.

miscible: describes two liquids that are soluble in each other Section 22.2 Alcohols, Ethers, and Amines (cont.) hydroxyl group alcohol

denatured alcohol ether amine Oxygen and nitrogen are two of the most-common atoms found in organic functional groups. Alcohols

Oxygen commonly forms two covalent bonds to form a stable octet. An oxygen-hydrogen group covalently bonded to a carbon atom is called a hydroxyl group. An organic compound in which a hydroxyl group replaces a hydrogen is called an alcohol.

Alcohols (cont.) Alcohols (cont.) Alcohol is polar and mixes completely with water. Denatured alcohol is ethanol with small amounts of noxious

materials added to it. Alcohol names are based on the alkane names, with the ending ol. Ethers An ether is an organic compound containing an oxygen bonded to two

carbon atoms. Ethers (cont.) Ethers have no hydrogen atoms bonded to their oxygen atoms, so they cannot form hydrogen bonds with each other. Ethers are volatile and have low boiling points.

Ethers with identical chains are named by the chain followed by the word ether. Ethers with different chains are named in alphabetical order followed by ether. Amines Amines contain nitrogen atoms bonded to carbon

atoms in aliphatic chains or aromatic rings. Amines (cont.) Amines are primary, secondary, or tertiary depending on if there are one, two, or three hydrogen atoms replaced by organic groups.

Amines have the suffix amine. Section 22.2 Assessment Which of the following is an alcohol? A. cyclohexamine B. 1-chlorobutanol C. bromobutene D. butylpropyl ether

0% A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0%

D. D Section 22.2 Assessment Which functional group is present in an alcohol? A. hydroxyl group B. halogen C. aromatic ring D. amino group

0% A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0%

D. D Section 22.3 Carbonyl Compounds Identify the structures of carbonyl compounds, including aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, and

amides. Discuss the properties of compounds containing the carbonyl group. electronegative: indicates the relative ability of an elements

atoms to attract electrons in a chemical bond Section 22.3 Carbonyl Compounds (cont.) carbonyl group carboxyl group

aldehyde ester ketone amide

carboxylic acid condensation reaction Carbonyl compounds contain a doublebonded oxygen in the functional group. Organic Compounds Containing the

Carbonyl Group An oxygen atom double-bonded to a carbon atom is a carbonyl group. Aldehydes are organic compounds in which the carbonyl group is located at the end of the carbon chain and is bonded to a carbon atom on one side and a hydrogen on the other side.

Aldehydes are named with the suffix al. Organic Compounds Containing the Carbonyl Group (cont.) Organic Compounds Containing the Carbonyl Group (cont.) A ketone is an organic compound in which

the carbon of the carbonyl group is bonded to two other carbon atoms. Ketones are named by changing the e at the end of the alkane name to one, and including a number before the name to indicate the position of the ketone group. Ketones and aldehydes share many chemical and physical properties because their

structures are similar. Organic Compounds Containing the Carbonyl Group (cont.) Ketones are popular solvents for moderately polar substances. Ketones are somewhat soluble in water. Organic Compounds Containing the

Carbonyl Group (cont.) Carboxylic Acids Carboxylic acids are organic compounds that have a carboxyl group. Carboxyl groups are carbonyls bonded to a hydroxyl group Carboxylic acids are named by changing the

ane to anoic acid. Carboxylic Acids (cont.) Carboxylic Acids (cont.) Carboxylic groups are represented by COOH. Carboxylic acids are polar and reactive, and

ionize in water to form acids. Organic Compounds Derived from Carboxylic Acids An ester is any organic compound with a carboxyl group in which the hydrogen in the hydroxyl group is replaced by an alkyl chain.

Organic Compounds Derived from Carboxylic Acids (cont.) To name an ester, write the alkyl group followed by the name of the acid with the oic acid ending replaced with oate. Esters are polar molecules and many are volatile and sweet smelling.

Many esters are found in fruits and flowers. Organic Compounds Derived from Carboxylic Acids (cont.) An amide group is an organic compound in which the OH group of a carboxylic acid is replaced by a nitrogen atom bonded to other atoms.

Organic Compounds Derived from Carboxylic Acids (cont.) The amide functional group is found repeated many times in natural proteins and some synthetic materials. Condensation Reactions

In a condensation reaction, two smaller organic molecules combine to form a more complex molecule, accompanied by the loss of a small molecule such as water. Condensation reactions are elimination reactions that form bonds between two atoms not previously bonded.

Section 22.3 Assessment Which of the following is the carbonyl group? A. COOH B. C=O C. CONH2 D. R-O-R 0%

A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% D. D

Section 22.3 Assessment Which of the following does NOT contain a carbonyl group? A. ketones B. esters C. amines D. aldehydes 0%

A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% D. D

Section 22.4 Other Reactions of Organic Compounds Classify an organic reaction into one of five categories: substitution, addition, elimination, oxidation-reduction, or condensation. Use structural formulas to write equations for reactions of organic compounds.

Predict the products of common types of organic reactions. catalyst: a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering activation energies but is not consumed in the reaction Section 22.4 Other Reactions of Organic Compounds (cont.)

elimination reaction addition reaction dehydrogenation reaction hydration reaction

dehydration reaction hydrogenation reaction Classifying the chemical reactions of organic compounds makes predicting products of reactions much easier.

Classifying Reactions of Organic Substances Using combinations of reactions allows chemical industries to convert simple molecules from petroleum and natural gas into large, complex organic molecules. Classifying Reactions of Organic Substances (cont.)

The formation of alkenes from alkanes is an elimination reaction, a reaction in which a combination of atoms is removed from two adjacent atoms forming an additional bond between the two carbon atoms.

Classifying Reactions of Organic Substances (cont.) A reaction that eliminates two hydrogen atoms is called a dehydrogenation reaction. Classifying Reactions of Organic Substances

(cont.) An elimination reaction in which the atoms removed form water is called a dehydration reaction. Classifying Reactions of Organic Substances (cont.)

Addition reactions result when other atoms bond to two atoms bonded by a double or triple covalent bonds. A hydration reaction is an addition reaction in which a hydrogen atom and hydroxyl group from a water molecule add to a double or triple bond.

Classifying Reactions of Organic Substances (cont.) A hydrogenation reaction involves the addition of hydrogen to atoms in a double or triple bond. Catalysts are usually needed in hydrogenation reactions.

Hydrogenation reactions are commonly used to convert liquid unsaturated fats into saturated fats that are solid at room temperature. Classifying Reactions of Organic Substances (cont.)

Classifying Reactions of Organic Substances (cont.) Many organic compounds can be converted to other compounds by oxidation-reduction reactions. Classifying Reactions of Organic Substances

(cont.) Predicting Products of Organic Reactions Each type of reactionsubstitution, addition, elimination, oxidation-reduction, and condensationcan be used to predict the products of other organic reactions of the same types.

Section 22.4 Assessment Which type of reaction normally produces an alcohol from an alkene? A. substitution B. elimination C. hydration D. addition

0% A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0%

D. D Section 22.4 Assessment What type of reaction is the following? alkyl halide alkene A. halogenation B. elimination C. addition

D. substitution 0% A. A B. B C. C 0% 0%

0% D. D Section 22.5 Polymers Diagram the relationship between a polymer and the monomers from which it forms.

Classify polymerization reactions as addition or condensation. Predict polymer properties based on their molecular structures and the presence of functional groups.

molecular mass: the mass of one molecule of a substance Section 22.5 Polymers (cont.) polymer condensation

polymerization monomer polymerization reaction addition polymerization thermoplastic thermosetting

Synthetic polymers are large organic molecules made up of repeating units that are linked together by addition or condensation reactions. The Age of Polymers Polymers are large molecules consisting

of many repeating structural units. The turn of the 20th century saw the advent of such polymers as rubber and celluloid. Reactions Used to Make Polymers (cont.)

A monomer is a molecule from which a polymer is made. A reaction in which monomer units are bonded together to form a polymer are called polymerization reactions. In addition polymerization all of the atoms present in the monomers are retained in the polymer product.

Reactions Used to Make Polymers (cont.) Reactions Used to Make Polymers (cont.)

Reactions Used to Make Polymers (cont.) Reactions Used to Make Polymers (cont.)

Condensation polymerization takes place when monomers containing at least two functional groups combine with the loss of a small by-product, usually water. Properties and Recycling of Polymers Polymers are inexpensive and easy to

make. Polymers have a wide range of properties. They are easy to mold into different shapes. Thermoplastic polymers can be melted and molded repeatedly into shapes that are retained when cooled. Thermosetting polymers can be molded when first prepared, but cannot be remelted.

Properties and Recycling of Polymers (cont.) As fossil fuel supplies are depleted, recycling polymers becomes more important. Section 22.5 Assessment The smaller, repeating units that make up a polymer are called ____.

A. structural units B. polyunits C. monomers D. building blocks 0% A. A B. B

C. C 0% 0% 0% D. D Section 22.5 Assessment One way polymers are synthesized is

through ____ reactions. A. condensation B. elimination C. substitution D. dehydration 0% A. A

B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% D. D Chemistry Online

Study Guide Chapter Assessment Standardized Test Practice Image Bank Concepts in Motion Section 22.1 Alkyl Halides and Aryl Halides

Key Concepts The substitution of functional groups for hydrogen in hydrocarbons creates a wide variety of organic compounds. An alkyl halide is an organic compound that has one or more halogen atoms bonded to a carbon atom in an aliphatic compound.

Section 22.2 Alcohols, Ethers, and Amines Key Concepts Alcohols, ethers, and amines are formed when specific functional groups substitute for hydrogen in hydrocarbons. Because they readily form hydrogen bonds, alcohols have higher boiling points and higher water solubilities

than other organic compounds. Section 22.3 Carbonyl Compounds Key Concepts Carbonyl compounds are organic compounds that contain the C=O group. Five important classes of organic compounds containing carbonyl compounds are aldehydes,

ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, and amides. Section 22.4 Other Reactions of Organic Compounds Key Concepts Most reactions of organic compounds can be classified into one of five categories: substitution, elimination, addition, oxidation-reduction, and

condensation. Knowing the types of organic compounds reacting can enable you to predict the reaction products. Section 22.5 Polymers Key Concepts Polymers are large molecules formed by combining smaller molecules called monomers. Polymers are synthesized through addition or

condensation reactions. The functional groups present in polymers can be used to predict polymer properties. Aryl halides contain what two groups? A. nitrogen and aliphatic hydrocarbon chain B. nitrogen and aromatic

hydrocarbon ring C. halogen and aromatic hydrocarbon ring D. halogen and aliphatic hydrocarbon chain 0%

A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% D. D

Amines contain which function group? A. OH B. Br C. R-O-R D. NH2 0% A. A

B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% D. D Which of the following does NOT contain

the carbonyl group? A. ketones B. ethers C. aldehydes D. amides 0% A. A

B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% D. D What is an addition reaction in which a

hydrogen atom and hydroxyl group from a water molecule add to a double or triple bond called? A. elimination reaction B. hydration reaction C. dehydration reaction D. hydrogenation reaction

0% A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0%

D. D A type of plastic that can be molded only when first produced is called a ____. A. thermoplastic B. polythermal C. setting plastic D. thermosetting 0%

A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% D. D

What are the products of this reaction? CH3CH2Br + NaOH ____ A. CH3CH2Na + BrOH B. CH3CH2OH + NaBr C. CH3CH2OHNaBr D. CH3CH3 + Na3BrO

0% A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0%

D. D What type of compound does this formula represent? CH3CH2CH2COOH A. ester B. ether C. carboxylic acid

D. ketone 0% A. A B. B C. C 0%

0% 0% D. D How many carbon atoms are present in 2-ethyl pentane? A. 2 B. 5

C. 7 D. 8 0% A. A B. B C. C 0%

0% 0% D. D What are the oxidation numbers of the elements in H2SO4? A. H = +1, S = +6, O = 2 B. H = +2, S = +4, O = 4

C. H = +1, S = +4, O = 1 D. H = +1, S = 10, O = +2 0% A. A B. B C. C 0%

0% 0% D. D Which type of compound is formed when accepts H+ ions? A. Brnsted-Lowery base B. Brnsted-Lowery acid C. conjugate base

D. conjugate acid 0% A. A B. B C. C 0% 0%

0% D. D Click on an image to enlarge. 4 Organic Compounds and

Their Functional Groups Common Polymers Click any of the background top tabs to display the respective folder. Within the Chapter Outline, clicking a section tab on the right side of the screen will bring you to the first slide in each respective section.

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