CHEMICAL BONDING Chapter 6 WHAT IS ELECTRONEGATIVITY? WHY DOES IT MATTER? INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL BONDING
Section 5.1 SECTION 6.1 Electronegativity- The ability for an atom to attract an electron to itself There are 3 types of bonds
Ionic Bond Covalent Bond Polar Covalent Bond TYPES OF BONDS Ionic bond- Electrons are transferred forming ions. These ions are attracted to each other. The bond is a strong force between the two atoms. Covalent bond- two or more atoms sharing pairs of
electrons TYPES OF BONDS (CONT) Polar Covalent- two or more atoms sharing a pair of electrons unevenly ELECTRONEGATIVITY AND BONDING The type of bond between two or more atoms depends on the difference in electronegativity of the
atoms. Type of Bond Difference in Electronegati vity Ionic
SECTION 6.1: LEARNING CHECK What is the main distinction between ionic and covalent bonding? How is electronegativity used in determining the ionic or covalent character of the bonding between two elements? What type of bond would be expected between the following atoms?
Li and F Cu and S I and Bf COVALENT BONDING AND MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS Section
6.2 TERMS TO KNOW Molecule- a neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds Chemical formula- the relative numbers of atoms of each kind in a chemical compound by using atomic symbols and numerical subscripts
Octet- 8 electrons Single bond- 1 electron pair shared Double bond- EXAMINE THESE COVALENT MOLECULES. WHAT DO YOU NOTICE? FORMATION OF A COVALENT BOND
Overall goal: Obtain an octet Create a stable atom Lowest amount to energy CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COVALENT BOND Bond length: distance between
two bonded atoms Bond energy: the energy required to break a chemical bond and form neutral isolated atoms. THE OCTET RULE
Atoms will gain, lose, or share electrons to get 8 electrons in their highest occupied energy level Exceptions: Helium and Hydrogen- only need 2 valence electrons Boron- has 3 electrons and is stable with 6 electrons Example: BF 3 Expanded Octet- Some atoms can hold more than 8
when they are bonded to extremely electronegative atoms. Example: PF 5 and SF 6 ELECTRON-DOT NOTATION An electron configuration notation in which only the valence electrons of an atom of a particular element are shown.
LEWIS STRUCTURES Visual representation of molecules Element symbol- nuclei and inner-shell electrons Dot-pairs- non-bonding valence electrons Dashes- bond between two elements HOW TO DRAW LEWIS STRUCTURES? 1. Determine the type and number of atoms in the molecule
2. Write the electron-dot notation for each type of atom in the molecule 3. Determine the total number of valence electrons available to be combined 4. Arrange the atoms 1. 2. If carbon is present it is in the center
If not, the least electronegative atom is in the center 5. Add unshared pairs of electrons to each nonmetal atom (except hydrogen) Each atom needs to be surrounded by 8 electrons. 6. C ount the electrons in the structure to be sure that the number of valence electrons used equals the number available. 7. Place non-bonding valence electrons in pairs around atoms
without an octet EXAMPLES: NH 3 H 2 S SiH 4 PF 3 STRUCTURAL FORMULA
Indicates the kind, number, arrangement, and bonds but not the unshared electrons. HCl MULTIPLE COVALENT BONDS Double or triple bonds Triple bonds are the shortest and strongest covalent bonds
The need for a multiple bond becomes obvious if there are not enough valence electrons to complete octets by adding unshared pairs. REVIEW Compare the molecules H 2 NNH 2 and HNNH RESONANCE STRUCTURES
Bonding in molecules or ions that cannot be correctly represented by a single Lewis structure.
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