Chapter Title - Dongseo

Chapter Title - Dongseo

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad Semiconductor Diodes Chapter 1 Ch.1 Summary Diodes The diode is a 2-terminal device. A diode ideally conducts in only one direction. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad

2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary Diode Characteristics Conduction Region Non-Conduction Region The voltage across the diode is 0 V The current is infinite The forward resistance is defined as RF = VF / IF The diode acts like a short All of the voltage is across the diode

The current is 0 A The reverse resistance is defined as R R = V R / IR The diode acts like open Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary Semiconductor Materials Materials commonly used in the development of semiconductor devices:

Silicon (Si) Germanium (Ge) Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary Doping The electrical characteristics of silicon and germanium are improved by adding materials in a process called doping. There are just two types of doped semiconductor materials:

n-type n-type materials contain an excess of conduction band electrons. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad p-type p-type materials contain an excess of valence band holes. 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary p-n Junctions

One end of a silicon or germanium crystal can be doped as a p-type material and the other end as an n-type material. The result is a p-n junction Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary p-n Junctions At the p-n junction, the excess conduction-band electrons on the n-type side are attracted to the valence-band holes on the p-type side.

The electrons in the n-type material migrate across the junction to the p-type material (electron flow). Electron migration results in a negative charge on the p-type side of the junction and a positive charge on the n-type side of the junction. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad The result is the formation of a depletion region around the junction. 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

Ch.1 Summary Diode Operating Conditions A diode has three operating conditions: No bias Reverse bias Forward bias Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary

Diode Operating Conditions No Bias No external voltage is applied: VD = 0 V There is no diode current: ID = 0 A Only a modest depletion region exists Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary Diode Operating Conditions Reverse Bias

External voltage is applied across the p-n junction in the opposite polarity of the p- and n-type materials. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary Diode Operating Conditions Reverse Bias The reverse voltage causes the depletion

region to widen. The electrons in the n-type material are attracted toward the positive terminal of the voltage source. The holes in the p-type material are attracted toward the negative terminal of the voltage source. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary Diode Operating Conditions Forward Bias

External voltage is applied across the p-n junction in the same polarity as the p- and ntype materials. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary Diode Operating Conditions Forward Bias The forward voltage causes the depletion

region to narrow. The electrons and holes are pushed toward the p-n junction. The electrons and holes have sufficient energy to cross the p-n junction. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary Actual Diode Characteristics Note the regions for no bias, reverse bias, and forward bias

conditions. Carefully note the scale for each of these conditions. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary Majority and Minority Carriers Two currents through a diode: Majority Carriers

The majority carriers in n-type materials are electrons. The majority carriers in p-type materials are holes. Minority Carriers The minority carriers in n-type materials are holes. The minority carriers in p-type materials are electrons. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary Zener Region The Zener region is in the diodes reverse-bias region. At some point the reverse bias voltage

is so large the diode breaks down and the reverse current increases dramatically. The maximum reverse voltage that wont take a diode into the zener region is called the peak inverse voltage or peak reverse voltage. The voltage that causes a diode to enter the zener region of operation is called the zener voltage (VZ). Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary

Forward Bias Voltage The point at which the diode changes from no-bias condition to forward-bias condition occurs when the electrons and holes are given sufficient energy to cross the p-n junction. This energy comes from the external voltage applied across the diode. The forward bias voltage required for a: gallium arsenide diode 1.2 V silicon diode 0.7 V Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad germanium diode 0.3 V

2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary Temperature Effects As temperature increases it adds energy to the diode. It reduces the required forward bias voltage for forwardbias conduction. It increases the amount of reverse current in the reversebias condition. It increases maximum reverse bias avalanche voltage. Germanium diodes are more sensitive to temperature variations than silicon or gallium arsenide diodes. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary Resistance Levels Semiconductors react differently to DC and AC currents. There are three types of resistance: DC (static) resistance AC (dynamic) resistance Average AC resistance Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

Ch.1 Summary DC (Static) Resistance For a specific applied DC voltage (VD) the diode has a specific current (ID) and a specific resistance (RD). VD RD ID Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

Ch.1 Summary AC (Dynamic) Resistance In the forward bias region: 26 mV rd rB ID The resistance depends on the amount of current (ID) in the diode. The voltage across the diode is fairly constant (26 mV for 25C). rB ranges from a typical 0.1 for high power devices to 2 for low power, general purpose diodes. In some cases rB can be ignored. In the reverse bias region:

rd The resistance is effectively infinite. The diode acts like an open. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary Average AC Resistance rav IVd

IId pt. to pt. AC resistance can be calculated using the current and voltage values for two points on the diode characteristic curve. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary

Diode Equivalent Circuit Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary Diode Capacitance When reverse biased, the depletion layer is very large. The diodes strong positive and negative polarities create capacitance (C T). The amount of capacitance depends on the reverse voltage applied. When forward

biased, storage capacitance or diffusion capacitance (CD) exists as the diode voltage increases. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary Reverse Recovery Time (trr) Reverse recovery time is the time required for a diode to

stop conducting when switched from forward bias to reverse bias. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary Diode Specification Sheets Diode data sheets contain standard information, making crossmatching of diodes for replacement or design easier. 1. Forward Voltage (VF) at a specified current and temperature 2. Maximum forward current (IF) at a specified temperature 3. Reverse saturation current (IR) at a specified voltage and temperature 4. Reverse voltage rating, PIV or PRV or V(BR), at a specified temperature

5. Maximum power dissipation at a specified temperature 6. Capacitance levels 7. Reverse recovery time, trr 8. Operating temperature range Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary Diode Symbol and Packaging The anode is abbreviated A The cathode is abbreviated K Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

Boylestad 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary Diode Testing Diodes are commonly tested using one of these types of equipment: Diode checker Ohmmeter Curve tracer Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad

2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary Diode Checker Many digital multimeters have a diode checking function. The diode should be tested out of circuit. A normal diode exhibits its forward voltage: Gallium arsenide 1.2 V Silicon diode 0.7 V Germanium diode 0.3 V Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad

2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary Ohmmeter An ohmmeter set on a low Ohms scale can be used to test a diode. The diode should be tested out of circuit. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary

Curve Tracer A curve tracer displays the characteristic curve of a diode in the test circuit. This curve can be compared to the specifications of the diode from a data sheet. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary

Other Types of Diodes There are several types of diodes besides the standard p-n junction diode. Three of the more common are: Zener diodes Light-emitting diodes Diode arrays Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary Zener Diode

A Zener diode is one that is designed to safely operate in its zener region; i.e., biased at the Zener voltage (VZ). Common zener diode voltage ratings are between 1.8 V and 200 V Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary Light-Emitting Diode (LED)

An LED emits light when it is forward biased, which can be in the infrared or visible spectrum. The forward bias voltage is usually in the range of 2 V to 3 V. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved Ch.1 Summary Diode Arrays Multiple diodes can be packaged together in an integrated circuit (IC). Common Anode

A variety of diode configurations are available. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad Common Cathode 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

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