Chapter Five - Northern Virginia Community College, Annandale

Chapter Five - Northern Virginia Community College, Annandale

Chapter 5 WitnessesLay and Expert Criminal Evidence 6th Edition Norman M. Garland WitnessesLay and Expert o A person becomes a potential witness by having personal knowledge about the facts of a case to be tried.

Personal knowledge may have been acquired through something seen, heard, smelled, or touched. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Royalty-Free/CORBIS Compelling the Testimony o An individual does not always have a choice whether or not to appear as a witness.

o Anyone with information that may be of value in arriving at the truth in a trial may be compelled to be a witness. o This power to compel a witness to attend a trial is based on two clauses appearing in the Sixth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States: the Confrontation and Compulsory Process Clauses. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Confrontation Clause The Confrontation Clause provides that "the accused shall enjoy the right . . . to be confronted with the witnesses

against him" and the Compulsory Process Clause states that "the accused shall enjoy the right . . . to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor." o Both of these rights are available to the accused in federal and state trials. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Pointer v. Texas In this case the Court stated: o We hold today that the Sixth Amendment's right of an accused to confront the witnesses against him is likewise a fundamental right

and is made obligatory on the States by the Fourteenth Amendment . . . . o The fact that this right appears in the Sixth Amendment of our Bill of Rights reflects the belief of the Framers of those liberties and Safeguards that confrontation was a fundamental right essential to a fair trial in a criminal prosecution. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Attendance of Witnesses o In order to ensure that a witness appears to testify, most lawyers will compel witnesses' attendance

by issuing a subpoena. o A subpoena is an official document issued by either a judge, the clerk of a court, or an attorney and delivered to, or "served upon," the witness. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Subpoena Duces Tecum o If the person has papers, records, or other physical evidence needed for the trial, the person will be served with a subpoena duces tecum. o This subpoena also directs the

person to bring specific material to court. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Witnesses: Failure to Appear o If a witness does not appear in accordance with an oral request, it is not a violation of a court order, and no penalty can be imposed. o A witness's failure to appear in response to a subpoena, however, is a violation of a court order and subjects the violator to the full range of judicial sanctions

2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Methods of Subpoenaing Witnesses o In most jurisdictions, the attorneys (either the defense attorney or the prosecutor), issue their own subpoenas to compel the appearance of a witness. o In a few jurisdictions, the clerk or judge must issue the subpoena and the attorneys' duty is to furnish a list to the clerk of persons who are needed as witnesses.

2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Serving of the Supoena o Although in most states anyone may serve a subpoena, in criminal cases the subpoenas are usually given to an officer of the court, who may be a deputy sheriff, a constable, or a marshal, to be served on the person named in the

subpoena. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Out-of-State Witnesses o A subpoena is valid only within the state in which it is issued. o Consequently, in the past, when a material witness in a criminal trial resided in another state, compelling an appearance created an obstacle.

2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Uniform Act to Secure the Attendance of Witnesses o This act permits a court to issue a subpoena to an out-of-state witness and to have the subpoena sent to a court in that state. o The witness will be commanded to appear in that court, where a hearing will be held to determine whether he or she is a material witness. o If it is determined that the witness is material, he or she will be ordered to appear in the court where the original subpoena was issued. o A witness who fails to appear as ordered may suffer

the same contempt sanctions as a witness within the state. o Again, the witness is entitled to compensation for appearing. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Segregation of Witnesses The Rule on Witnesses o The reason for segregating or excluding the witnesses is to prevent witnesses from hearing each other's testimony and being affected by it, either intentionally or unintentionally.

o The rule on witnesses is designed to prevent the most overt form of witnesses' collaboration. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Two Categories of Witnesses Witnesses have been classified into two categories: (1) the lay or ordinary witness (2) the expert witness 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Lay or Ordinary Witness o The lay witness is a person who has some

personal knowledge about the facts of the case and who has been called upon to relate this information in court. o The law enforcement officer will usually fall within the category of the lay witness. o The lay witness is permitted to testify about facts only and, with few exceptions, may not state personal opinions. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Methods of Interrogating Witnesses

With respect to direct examination, the Federal Rules of Evidence have taken the traditional view that it is improper for an attorney to ask leading questions of the witness. o Unless an exceptions applies, direct examination must be by non-leading questions. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Questioning the Witness o A leading question is one that suggests to the witness the answer sought by the questioner.

o The law prefers open-ended, or non-leading, questions on direct examination because leading questions are by definition suggestive. o Leading questions could induce a witness to inadvertently adopt the questioner's suggestion. This is especially likely where the attorney posing the leading question prepared the witness to testify, and the witness has some relationship with the party represented by that attorney. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Statutory Guidelines FRE provides for exceptions to the rule

prohibiting leading questions on direct examination: 1) with respect to undisputed preliminary or inconsequential matters 2) when a witness is hostile, unwilling, frightened, or biased 3) with respect to a child or adult witness with communication problems 4) with a witness whose recollection is exhausted 5) when laying a necessary foundation under certain circumstances 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Witness Interrogation:

The Narrative Form o In this method, the witness is requested to state in his or her own words what happened in a particular instance. o This permits the witness to tell the story in a logical sequence, normally making it easier for the jury to follow evidence presented in this manner. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Cross-examination and the FRE FRE 611(c) says: "Ordinarily

leading questions should be permitted on cross-examination." o No question may be asked on cross-examination unless its subject has been brought up during direct examination. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Cross-Examinations Primary Benefit: Impeachment o Perhaps the most important purpose of cross-examination is to persuade the jury to disbelieve the testimony of a witness, or to

impeach the witness. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Impeachment Impeachment is a process or a result that diminishes the believability of a witness's testimony or destroys it. There are five basic methods of impeachment: (1) by contradiction (2) by proof of bad character for truthfulness (3) by proof of prior inconsistent statement (4) by proof of bias or motive to falsify (5) by proof of lack of or diminished witness

capacity 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Methods of Impeachment Contradiction Impeachment by contradiction by crossexamination consists of asking the witness about facts that are directly in opposition to those testified to on direct examination. o For example, assume a defendant is charged with the unlawful sale of cocaine and further that he takes the stand and testifies denying the transaction and stating that he has never had any contact with any drugs. o If the defendant had been tested for drugs as a condition for his release pending trial a year before and the test was positive, on cross-examination, the prosecution would be

permitted to contradict the accused's testimony by inquiring about the fact that the accused had tested positive for cocaine. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Crimes of Bad Character for Truthfulness The crimes that can be shown to impeach for bad character for truthfulness are: o A crime involving dishonesty. o Any crime punishable by imprisonment in excess of one year. o A crime involving dishonesty includes perjury, fraud, or embezzlement. o A crime punishable by imprisonment in

excess of one year, including most felonies. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Impeachment by Bad Character for Truthfulness Impeachment by proof of bad character for truthfulness can be done in only two ways: o First, the witness can be impeached by proof that he or she was convicted of certain crimes. o Second, the witness can be impeached by questioning on cross-examination

about specific bad acts that involve dishonesty but did not result in a conviction. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Impeachment by Prior Inconsistent Statement o Impeachment by prior inconsistent statement consists of the cross-examiner asking the witness about the fact that the witness previously made statements contradicting the testimony given on direct examination.

2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Impeachment for Bias oImpeachment for bias may take many different forms. Any interest the witness may have in the case or its outcome may be investigated on cross-examination to show bias or motive to falsify. oA relationship between the witness and a party, or a financial connection such as employment, or hatred or dislike for a party, are all examples of provable bias. o The law finds that bias is almost always, provable in any case. Particularly, ethnic or

racial bias has been held to be provable. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Impeach a Witness by Showing a Lack of Capacity or Impaired Capacity Witness capacity consists of: o perception o memory o narration o sincerity o Poor eyesight, hearing, memory, or ability to speak effectively are all

matters that can be attacked in many persons. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Witness Must Answer Questions o A witness must answer all questions the judge permits, whether the questions are on direct examination or crossexamination. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Contempt of Court or Perjury: A Dearth of Choices

o If a witness absolutely refuses to answer a question and if the question is not incriminating, the witness can be held in contempt of court in addition to having his or her entire testimony stricken from the record. o Moreover, if a witness knowingly makes a false statement about a matter material to the case or swears or affirms the truth of a statement previously made that he or she knows to be untrue, the witness may guilty of perjury. o Perjury may be a misdemeanor or a felony carrying corresponding criminal penalties of fines or imprisonment.

2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Opinion Testimony of Lay Witnesses o Opinion testimony of lay witnesses is restricted to those opinions or inferences that are "rationally based on the perception of the witness and . . . helpful to a clear understanding of the witness'[s] testimony or the determination of a fact in issue." 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Guidelines on Opinion Testimony o The law has set guidelines by which a lay witness may relate information in the form of an opinion. o The opinion testimony must be rationally based on the witness's perception. In other words, the opinion must be one that a person could normally form from observed facts. o The opinion testimony must be "helpful to a clear understanding of the witnesss testimony or the determination of a fact in issue." 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Proper Areas of Opinion Testimony o identity o handwriting o quantity o value o weight o measure o time 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. o distance o velocity

o form o size o intoxication o veracity Additional Areas of Opinion Testimony: We all have some! o age o strength o heat o cold o sickness o health 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

odisposition otemper oanger ofear oexcitement ogeneral character Requisite Laying of a Foundation o Before a lay witness may express an opinion, a proper foundation must be laid to prove that the witness had personal knowledge of the facts upon which the opinion is formed.

o Personal knowledge may be shown by evidence in the form of the witness's own testimony. o A witness may not testify that something smelled like marijuana unless it is established that the witness, from prior experience, knows what marijuana smells like. o Attention is called to the fact that the opinion of the lay witness may be only about something that the witness observed, heard, or smelled and not in answer to some hypothetical question pertaining to the witness's opinion of the matter. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Commonly Encountered Opinions in Criminal Matters

o o o o o o o o o State of Emotion Speed of Vehicles Distances Sobriety or Intoxication Age, Identity, and Physical Condition of a

Person Opinions on Miscellaneous Matters Such as Weight, Color, and Value Character of a Person Sanity Opinions About Handwriting 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Terminology of the Lay Witness o Terminology alone does not convert a witness's admissible factual testimony into inadmissible opinion testimony.

o In general conversation, people frequently start a statement with such phrases as In my opinion," It is my belief," or "I believe." o At first glance, this would imply that the person using such phrases is expressing a conclusion. In reality, the witness may be stating an actual fact. o When a witness uses such a phrase, the attorney conducting the examination may have to question the witness further to clarify that a fact is being stated and not a conclusion. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Expert Witnesses

o To assist the jury in its search for the truth and in the best interests of justice, the services of the expert witness often come into play. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Expert Witnesses and the FRE o Under the FRE, an expert may testify if the scientific, technical, or other specialized knowledge he or she provides will assist the jury in understanding the evidence or in determining a material fact.

2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Definition of Expert Witness o An expert witness is a person skilled in some art, trade, science, or profession. o An expert must have either knowledge, skill, experience, training, or education that is beyond and above that of the average person. o In this respect, therefore, an expert is in a position to assist the jurors because they do not have this background.

2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Foundations and the Expert Witness o Before an expert may testify, the judge must first determine whether the witness is qualified as an expert in the particular field by knowledge, skill, experience, training, or education and that the testimony will help the jury arrive at the truth. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

What makes an expert? o It is possible to become an expert witness through self-instruction and experience. o Many of the crime-laboratory experts, better known as criminalists, fall within this category. o There are certain fields in which there are few courses available or in which there has been very little written. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Foundation for Expert Testimony

o In order to utilize the testimony of an expert witness, three requirements must be established to the satisfaction of the trial judge. o First, the subject matter of the expert's proposed testimony must be relevant in the sense that it will assist the jury "to understand the evidence or to determine a fact in issue." o Second, the expert's field must be one requiring scientific, technical, or specialized knowledge. o Third, the witness must be shown to have the background necessary to qualify as an expert in the field. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Overruled Frye Test o Under the Frye test, only such expert testimony as was based on a scientific methodology "generally accepted as reliable in the relevant scientific community" was admissible. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals and Kumho Tire v. Carmichael o The Daubert test requires the trial judge to determine that the

subject of an expert's testimony has achieved the stature of "scientific knowledge" based on five factors. o In Kumho, the Court extended Dauberts holding to technical and specialized knowledge. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Five Tests of DaubertKumho (1) testing of the theory or technique (2) peer review and publication of the theory or technique (3) the particular scientific technique's known or potential rate of error

(4) The existence and maintenance of standards controlling the techniques operation (5) the theory or technique's "general acceptance" 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Criminalist or the Forensic Specialist o A criminalist is a specialist in the application of science to crime and the law. o When the criminalist makes a bullet comparison or compares a latent fingerprint with a suspect's, the

expert's opinion is necessary in the trial since the average person is unable to analyze such findings without assistance. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Qualifying the Expert o Therefore, if the criminalist has had formal education in ballistics and fingerprint analysis, this information would be elicited first by the prosecutor on direct examination. o However, even if the witness has had no formal education, the prosecutor can qualify the criminalist as an expert

by eliciting information about the witness's special training and experience. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Qualifying the Expert: Voir Dire o The qualification of an expert witness places a burden upon the side producing the expert witness to prove qualification. o In the typical criminal case, the qualification process involves preliminary questions asked of the witness about education, experience, training and work in order to

establish the witness's basic qualifications. o In addition, the attorney will want to qualify the witness as persuasively as possible by going beyond the essential qualifications in order to give the witness as much stature as possible in the eyes of the jury. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Final ArbiterThe Judge o The final determination whether a person qualifies as an expert witness or not is made by the trial judge, and unless the decision is beyond all reason, it will not be overruled on appeal.

o Once the witness is accepted by the judge as an expert witness, the weight given to the testimony is determined by the jury. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Testimony of the Expert Witness o The opinions and conclusions of the expert witness may be based upon information gained in one of three ways. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

The First Way o First, specific information possessed by the expert, gained through examination of a particular piece of evidence, may be the basis of her opinion or conclusion. o Such opinion testimony may be elicited simply by asking the expert what conclusions were reached after examining the evidence. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Second Way o Second, the expert may rely upon data

supplied from another source in any form, as long as it is within the usual practice in the field to rely on such data. o Moreover, under FRE 703, the facts or data upon which the expert bases an opinion need not be admissible at trial, provided that such data or facts are of a type reasonably relied upon by experts in the particular field. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Finally, the Third Way o Third, the expert may be

presented with a set of hypothetical facts from which the witness is asked to draw conclusions. o This type of presentation is not used frequently in criminal cases. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Experts and the Use of Hypothetical Questions o Although hypothetical questions have historically been criticized as encouraging partisan bias . . . and as complex and time consuming,

the FRE continues to allow the use of hypothetical questions. o It is within the discretion of the trial judge whether to allow such questions. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. How Hypothetical Questions Work o An expert may be a witness even though he or she has not examined any evidence and has no knowledge, either directly or indirectly, about the case. o Instead, a set of hypothetical facts, data,

or opinions that have some relation to the matter at issue will be given to the expert, who will then be asked for an opinion, based on his or her experience and knowledge, of what would happen given a set of circumstances. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Kinds of Expert Witnesses o Medical Examiner or Coroner o Document Examiner o Fingerprint Expert o Skid-mark Expert, Speed Expert, and Accident Reconstructionist

o Bookmaking, Narcotics, and Other Specific Types of Crimes Experts 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Kinds of Experts o Criminalist or Forensic Scientist o DNA Expert o Footprint Expert o Psychologist and Psychiatrist o Polygraph Examiner o Voiceprint Expert o Photographer 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Photographers o Except for certain scientific photographs, such as the spectrograph, micrograph, or xray, a photographer does not have to be an expert in the field of photography to have photographs admitted in evidence. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Voiceprint Expert o Individuals have been accepted by the courts as experts in the method of voice

identification known as voiceprints. o This method of voice identification consists of identifying or eliminating an unknown voice among several known by both listening to the voices and visually inspecting a spectrogram. o Scientifically described, acoustical spectrography is a branch of science that consists of composing the voice or sound into harmonic components and obtaining a visual pattern of the sound. This pattern is called a spectrogram. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Polygraph Examiners

o Polygraph experts allege that the polygraph is now beyond the experimental stage and is a recognized scientific instrument capable of detecting truthfulness and falsehood. o Although the courts have agreed that there has been substantial progress in improving the equipment and the operator techniques used in administering polygraph tests, very few courts will allow evidence of polygraph results to be admitted for any purpose. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychologists and

Psychiatrists o It is recognized that doctors specializing in psychiatry or psychology may state their opinion on the sanity of a person, but a perplexing problem arises as to whether a psychologist or psychiatrist may state an opinion on the sanity issue. o It is known that sanity is a matter of mental illness, thus a psychologist or psychiatrist who is trained and experienced in mental illnesses may qualify as an expert on mental illness and express an opinion on the sanity of a person. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Footprint Experts o Footprints are admitted in evidence when their similarity to the shoes worn by a defendant justifies an inference that the prints were made by his or her shoes. o Often there is not much that science can add to a comparison of a cast or photograph made of a footprint found at a crime scene with the shoe of a suspect. o Thus, similarities in any peculiar markings between the cast or photograph and the shoe, as well as a

comparison of the size, may often be made by the jury with as much proficiency as an expert witness. Spike Mafford/Getty Images 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. DNA Experts o The area of DNA evidence requires the assistance of highly-educated and trained experts. o Use of DNA evidence requires scientific knowledge, and therefore it would be impossible for an officer or a person, by way of training or experience only, to give an opinion with respect to such evidence.

o It is necessary to have experts educated in the fields of genetics, biology, chemistry and other sciences to testify as DNA experts concerning such evidence. Usually scientists, those with advanced degrees in the sciences, will be required to testify, as this lends more credibility to their testimony inMcGraw-Hill theCompanies, eyes the jury. 2011 The Inc. Allof

rights reserved. PhotoDisc/Getty Images Criminalist or Forensic Scientist A few of the more commonly encountered ones are in the fields of: o ballistics o spectroscopic examinations o the examination of hairs and fibers, soils o toxicology o glass and glass fractures o blood and other body fluids

o paints and chemicals 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Bookmaking Experts o Officers who have had extensive experience in working on particular types of crimes may become qualified as crimes experts with respect to those particular crimes. o For example, officers who work on bookmaking cases may become qualified as experts in what is considered to be material and paraphernalia used by bookmakers. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Narcotics and Other Specific Types of Crimes Experts o Officers experienced in drug investigations may qualify to testify on drug users' methods of taking drugs. o They may also express their opinion about scars that they believe to have been made by injections or whether certain paraphernalia found at a crime scene were used by those engaged in the use or sale of narcotics. o The narcotic content of a pill or powder, however, would have to be determined by a person skilled in the field of chemistry.

2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Skid-Mark Expert, Speed Expert, and Accident Reconstructionist o Serious motor vehicle accidents are a fact of life in all societies. In many instances, there are few, if any, eyewitnesses to automobile accidents, so that determination of the speed of the vehicles involved in accidents is not easily made, yet the speed is often an important factor of a case. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Fingerprint Expert o The services of the fingerprint expert come into the picture when it is necessary to make a comparison between a latent fingerprint at a crime scene and the prints of a known suspect to determine whether the latent print is that of the suspect. o If an identification is made, the examiner will in most instances be called as a witness to prove the basis upon

which an identification was made. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Royalty-Free/CORBIS Medical Examiner or Coroner o In homicide cases, the cause of death must be established. This is invariably done by the medical examiner or coroner. o The examiner will be called as an expert witness by the prosecution to give an opinion of the cause of death as a result of an examination of the body.

o It is only after the coroner or medical examiner has made a complete examination of the body that he or she can conclude that the death was due to stabbing and not to a heart attack, or that a death was due to strangulation and not to accidental drowning. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Document Examiner o A document examiner is usually skilled in making comparisons of handwritten documents and documents produced by all other means. o Such a person would be able

to qualify as a handwriting expert and an expert in the field of document examination generally. Siede Preis/Getty Images 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Handwriting Expert o The handwriting expert is seldom acquainted with the person whose writing he or she examines. Instead, the expert's examination is purely a comparison of two or more writings. o The expert may compare two checks in

an effort to determine whether they were written by the same individual. o Or the expert may have a sample of the known handwriting of a person to compare to a questioned check or document in an effort to form an opinion whether the questioned document was written by the person who gave the known handwriting sample. David Buffington/Getty Images 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Refreshing Recollection or Memory

o If a witness, whether lay or expert, is incapable of testifying for the simple reason that his or her memory has failed, an attorney may refresh the witness's memory. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Refreshing Recollection & the FRE o FRE 612 deals only with the use of a writing to refresh memory. o FRE 611(c) allows for the use of leading questions:

o As discussed earlier, leading questions are permitted on direct examination when necessary to develop the witness's testimony and are ordinarily permitted on cross-examination. Accordingly, refreshing recollection of a witness may occur either upon direct examination or crossexamination. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. What May Be Used to Refresh Recollection o notes o memoranda o reports

o photographs o newspaper articles o objects o song recordings o aromas 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Past Recollection Recorded o A common situation at trial, especially for witnesses who testify about matters recorded in extensive reports or who testify often, is that the witness's memory cannot be refreshed as previously described.

2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Technical Aspects to Past Recollection Recorded There are Six technical (legal) aspects to the matter of past recollection recorded. o First, before the writing may be used as past recollection recorded, the witness must be shown to have exhausted present recollection by failing to have recollection refreshed. o Second, the writing must have been prepared by the witness, at the witness's direction, or adopted by the

witness. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Technical Aspects to Past Recollection Recorded o Third, the witness must be in a position to swear that, at one time, the witness had knowledge of the contents and that the contents were true and correct. o Fourth, the evidence in the form of the writing is hearsay. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Technical Aspects to Past Recollection Recorded o Fifth, the evidence is admissible hearsay because there is an exception to the hearsay rule for past recollection recorded. o Finally, the evidence, though admissible, may only be read to the jury; the writing is not admissible unless offered by the opponent. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Investigative Report as a Means of Refreshing Recollection and Past

Recollection Recorded o An officer's investigative report, much like the officer's notebook, may be used to refresh the memory of the officer while he or she is testifying as a witness. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Report: Means of Refreshing Recollection & Past Recollection Recorded o The report need not have been prepared by the officer or at the officer's direction for purposes of refreshing his or her

memory. Accordingly, the report could be one prepared by a police stenographer as dictated by the officer or the report could be one prepared by another officer. Additionally, the report need not have been made at or near the time of the events that are reported. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • 6-4: Conservative and Nonconservative Forces

    6-4: Conservative and Nonconservative Forces

    6-4: Conservative and Nonconservative Forces The gravitational force has an interesting property that when an object is moved from one place to another, the work done by the gravitational force does not depend on the choice of path.
  • Making sense of complexity Development of the human-sphere

    Making sense of complexity Development of the human-sphere

    Common dynamic structures that seem to recur in many different situations. Popularised through systems models derived by the likes of Meadows, Klein, Senge, Kim and others.
  • IUVSTA Visual Aids Part I

    IUVSTA Visual Aids Part I

    Title: IUVSTA Visual Aids Part I Subject: Evaporation Author: Angus Rockett Keywords: Evaporation IUVSTA Visual Aids AVS Description: Created 1996 Last modified by
  • Syllabus: Part III - University of North Texas

    Syllabus: Part III - University of North Texas

    Definition 2.2: An. event . is any subset of a sample space. Events. In an experiment, we are interested in a particular outcome or a subset of outcomes. If a sample space has n elements, then there are 2n possible...
  • Cisco Presentation Guide - Tistory

    Cisco Presentation Guide - Tistory

    Router- Color and subdued Router w/Silicon Switch Protocol Translator CiscoWorks Workstation Terminal Server Access Server NetFlow Router Workgroup Director Network Management Appliance PC Router Card Cisco Hub Cisco MeetingPlace Express Software- Based Router on File/Application Server Bridge Workgroup Switch Color/Subdued...
  • cmi.epfl.ch

    cmi.epfl.ch

    Get design using the "user-pc"/Windows environment with a webbrowser WindowsKey+R then type " firefox ", followed by <cr> WindowsKey+R then type " iexplore ", followed by <cr> Save it to one of the folders "gdsii" / "cif that sit on...
  • Arduino Part 1 - Pat Arnott

    Arduino Part 1 - Pat Arnott

    Calibri Arial MS Pゴシック Courier New Wingdings Office Theme Arduino Part 1 What is a Microcontroller What is a Development Board The Arduino Development Board The Arduino Microcontroller: Atmel ARV Atmega 328 What is the Arduino Getting Started Try It:...
  • Essential Question: How do major organ systems work

    Essential Question: How do major organ systems work

    Explain the purpose of the major organ systems in the human body (i.e., digestion, respiration, reproduction, circulation, excretion, movement, control and coordination, and for protection from disease). Look at the following slides with animated pictures.