Chapter 9 - Civilization in eastern Europe: Byzantium and ...
CHAPTER 9 CIVILIZATION IN EASTERN EUROPE: BYZANTIUM AND ORTHODOX EUROPE L.B. BYZANTINE EMPIRE Emperor Constantine in 4th Century c.e. established a
capital at Constantinople Romans eastern capital Separate emperors ruled even before Rome fell Constantinople responsible for the Balkan peninsula, northern Middle east, Mediterranean coast, and North Africa Latin Greek (6th century)
Benefited from the high level of civilization in the former Hellenistic world and from the regions prosperous commerce Held of barbarian invaders JUSTINIANS ACHIEVEMENTS In the 6th century attempted to reconquer Western territory but without lasting success
Slavs, and Persians attacks Created defensive line Weakening the empire and creating new tax pressures Theodora heavily influenced him Died in 565 C.E. JUSTINIANS ACHIEVEMENTS Rebuilt Constantinople in classical style
Many architectural achievements Hagia Sophia Justinians code Reduced legal confusion, spread Roman legal concepts ARAB PRESSURE AND EMPIRES DEFENSES
Justinians successors concentrated on the defense of their eastern territories Centered in the Balkans and western and central turkey Blending Hellenistic culture with Christianity Withstood the seventh century advance of Arab Muslims, important regions lost Wars and permanent threat had significant cultural and commercial influences Free rural population, the provider of military recruits and taxes, weakened Aristocratic estates grew larger, and generals became stronger Empires fortunes fluctuated as it resisted pressures from the Arabs and Slavic
kingdoms At the close of the tenth century, the byzantine emperor may have been the strongest contemporary ruler BYZANTINE SOCIETY Emperor held to be ordained by god, head of church and states Women occasionally held the throne Elaborate bureaucracy supported the imperial authority
Officials trained in Hellenistic knowledge in a secular school system, recruited from all social classes Provincial governors were appointed from the center, and a spy system helped to preserve loyalty Careful military organization defended the empire Troops recruited locally and given land in return for service BYZANTINE SOCIETY AND POLITICS
Socially and economically depended on Constantinoples control of the countryside Bureaucracy regulated trade and food prices Widespread commercial network extended into Asia, Russia, Scandinavia, western Europe and Africa. Cultural life centered on Hellenistic secular traditions and orthodox Christianity Little artistic creativity, except in art and architecture
Domed buildings, colored mosaics, and painted icons expressed an art linked to religion SPLIT BETWEEN EASTERN AND WESTERN CHRISTIANITY Different rituals grew form Greek and Latin versions of the bible Contact between the two branches of Christianity trailed off Roman Catholic priests insisted of celibacy; Eastern orthodox priests could
marry Final split in 1054 EMPIRES DECLINE Long period of decline began in the 11th century Muslim Turkish invaders Independent Slavic states appeared in the Balkans Crusaders sacked Constantinople in 1204
Smaller empire struggled for another two centuries against western Europeans, Muslims, and Slavic kingdoms In 1453, the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople THE SPREAD OF CIVILIZATION IN EASTERN EUROPE Byzantine empires influence spread among the people of the Balkans and southern Russia through conquest, commerce, and Christianity.
In the ninth century, missionaries Cyril and Methodius devised a written script, Cyrillic, for the Slavic languages THE EMERGENCE OF KIEVAN RUS Slavic peoples migrated into Russia and eastern Europe Possessed iron and extended agriculture in Ukraine and western Russia Political organization centered in family tribes and villages
Animist religion Rich traditions of music and oral legends Monarchy emerged in Kiev around 855 under Rurik Kieve became prosperous commercial center Conversion to the Orthodox Christianity (980 1015) INSTITUTIONS AND CULTURE IN KIEVAN RUS
Borrowed much from Byzantium Favored Byzantine ceremonials and concept of strong central ruler Orthodox Christianity part of culture Almsgiving Literature focused on religious and royal events Art was dominated by icon painting and illuminated religious manuscripts Church architecture adapted to local conditions Peasants were free farmers
Aristocratic landlords (boyars) had less political power than similar westerners KIEVAN DECLINE Began in twelfth century Asian invaders seized territory while trade diminished Mongol invasions of the 13th century, Russian lands into territories Further Mongol (Tatar) dominance separated them from
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