Chapter 7:

Chapter 7:

Chapter 6: Forecasting Ownership Benefits and Value: Market Research Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Multiple Factors Affect Real Estate Demand Needs for access (linkages) location, location, and location Non-locational factors

Housing (style, design, size; financing available) Commercial (tenant mix and character; parking facilities) Offices (style, design, floor plate size; amenities and services; electrical and communications service) Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Market Segmentation

Market segmentation: Differences in preferences or needs among market subgroups Implication of market segmentation: Market research must focus on relevant market segments Corollary 1: Most real estate data is irrelevant in studying any particular property Corollary 2: Most important data for a particular market segment may not be readily available Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Challenges Posed by Market Segmentation

Market segmentation is an empirical notion: Cannot be described without investigating first Important facts of segmentation may vary with location and property type Research process must recognize this challenge No simple, universal procedure Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. The Cycle of Market Research Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Writing a Market Story All market research is someones particular story (Best to write down the assumptions of the story) Clues about market segments can come from industry literature (ex: Urban Land Institute) Initial collection of data should depend on the assumptions about segmentation Object: Estimate critical market parameters (rental rates, sales projections, etc.)

Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Writing a Market Story (continued) First analysis What are the critical parameters needed? What range of critical parameters are implied by data? Range narrow enough to be useful? Refinement necessary? Refining the research What factors affect critical parameters the most?

What information illuminates those factors? Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Story Approach vs. Conventional Market Research Story approach begins with property and its market segments, and then builds links to larger economy Conventional approach goes from the state of the world, to the nation, to the state, and then to the city, and finally to the property Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Three Examples of Property Market Research Elysian Forest planned unit development Palm Grove proposed office building Plane Vista proposed apartment expansion Why look only at development projects? 1. 2. 3.

No difference in market analysis questions between existing and proposed properties Much more market information for existing properties Therefore, critical parameters should be clearer for existing properties Development projects demonstrate more of the challenging data issues Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Elysian Forest: Proposed Planned Unit Development (PUD) PUD characteristics Mixed density (single family to townhouses) Smaller individual lots for single family

Common areas and recreation facilities Elysian Forest was bold and big (for University City) First PUD 900 units (several times the size of typical development Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Elysian Forest: Projected Sales and Market Projected Sales of Elysian Forest Year 1

2 3 4 5 All unit types* 88 212 236 260

104 * Condos, townhouses, patio homes, small-lot single family Estimated Sales in the University City Housing Market Year 1 All sales New units 1,500 500 2 3

4 1,500 1,550 1,600 600 850 900 5 1,700 1,100 Typical Elysian Forest Patio Home Pair Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Competitive Norm from Local Parade of Homes

Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Typical Elysian Forest Patio Home Cluster Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Market Defining Story for Elysian Forest

What is the product? (upper income, highdensity ownership residences) Who are the customers? (top 30% of household income, but not top 8%; not traditional family with children at home) Where are the customers? (retirement buyers; empty nesters; single parents, other adults (mixed sources)) What do customers care about in Elysian Forest? (good access to work; good recreation and social facilities; distinctive, contemporary design) What is the competition? (no other comparable projects; Parade of Homes) Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Core Market Segments for Elysian Forest Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Initial Data Collection Basic source: U.S. Census American Factfinder Table B25118 Tenure by Household Income in the past 12 months (income intervals for the 22% of households targeted for Elysian Forest) Table B19131 Family Type by Presence of Own Children Under 18 Years by Family Income in the past 12 months. (portion of each type of household that is income eligible; portion of traditional households with children at home) Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Core Market Segments for Elysian Forest Owner Occupant Households: 48,084 10,121 92 Core Market Segments Unrelated Individuals Other family 0 Single Parents 70 10,121 3,479 = 6,642

Empty Nesters 3,479 Traditional Families House Price Percentile 99 Core Market Share 6,642 48,084 = .1381 or 13.81% Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Implications of Analysis for Elysian Forest Sales

Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Actual Outcome for Elysian Forest Built 20 speculative units Staffed a sophisticated and expensive sales center Never sold one unit Project went to foreclosure Firm went into bankruptcy Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Case 2: Palm Grove Office Complex Proposed Project: 2 office buildings: Each one 40,000 sq. ft., 4 floors of 10,000 sq. ft. per floor Glass block design Located in mixed-use area (commercial, high school, car dealer, strip offices, no other large offices) Largest speculative office project ever proposed in University City Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Market Defining Story for Palm Grove Office Complex What is the product? General purpose offices: no special plumbing or equipment for medical or laboratory Who are the customers? General purpose office users with at least 25 employees Finance and insurance Nonresidential real estate brokerage/management

Engineering and consulting Accounting Computer services and programming Management consulting Market and public opinion research Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. A Market Defining Story (continued) Where are the customers? Already within University City (Few large offices move to the city) What do the customers want from Palm

Grove? Small firms: Street exposure and easy parking Large firms: Employee commuting, proximity to office support services Tentative market defining conclusions General purpose office users More than 25 employees Prospective tenants will need to already be in Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Initial Data Collection Alternative 1: Canvass the business community Advantage: Could also serve as a marketing

effort Disadvantage: Time and cost Alternative 2: Examine data in Census Bureau, County Business Patterns Advantages: Free and no need to leave your desk Disadvantage: May be dated information Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Initial Market Analysis

From County Business Patterns: Fewer that 10 firms in the office market segments have more than 25 employees Conclusion: No chance for the project Actual experience: Only one building completed which has mostly been half vacant Developer has disappeared Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Case 3: Plane Vista Apartments Proposed project: Add 400 units to present 500 units.

Existing project: Four years old High quality, wide variety of floor plans Indoor gymnasium with large weight room Diverse mix of tenants Location: Immediately north of Orlando airport Weakness: Perimeter of city; no special amenities Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Location of Plane Vista in Orlando Univ. of Central Florida CBD Plane Vista Apartments

Disney World Orlando International Airport Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Market Defining Story for Plane Vista What is the product? Standard design, broad appeal; high-quality apartments

Who are the customers? Assume a broad spectrum of working rental households; upper third of rental household income distribution Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Market Defining Story for Plane Vista (continued) Where are the customers? Initial assumption: Persons employed throughout east, south and central Orlando Influenced by commuting distance to work

What do customers like about Plane Vista? Should be well known from existing project Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Initial Data Collection Concerned with commuter access of Plane Vista relative to competing apartment projects Must see: locations of new, high-quality apartments and where jobs are concentrated Obtained apartment locations from dominant

apartment market research firm in Orlando No solid information on job locations Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Constructing Estimates of Job Locations Available job related data: Property appraisers database on 43,000 business and government properties Square footage of structures Location by geographic coordinates Classified by over 200 land use categories U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics website: County employment by NAICS category

Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Constructing Estimates of Job Locations (continued) For 20 major categories of land use compute: Total county employment per category Total county building space Space per worker =

Example: Total general office space Office space Total general = office employment per office worker For each property compute: Space Space per worker

= Est. no. of workers at property Example: Office space Space per office worker = Est. office workers at

property Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Where People Work in Orlando CBD Univ. of Central Florida Plane Vista Apartments Disney World Orlando International

Airport Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Initial Market Analysis Distribution of new apartments shows a discrepancy between initial story and map: Most new apartments are very distant from Plane Vista Suggests that Plane Vista is isolation from larger Orlando market Jobs map shows a similar clustering: Jobs concentrated at airport and on the

arterial leading north Jobs scarce to south, west, and east Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Revised Market Defining Story: Airport Island Assumption: 75% of Plane Vista occupants work on airport island. Future of Plane Vista market depends on airport island

CBD Airport Island Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Data Collection: Round Two Total of jobs on airport island is 25,000 Airport is 60% of total New firms will add 550 jobs to airport

island Conclusion: Total job growth on airport island is about 5.2% per year for next two years; Metro Orlando job growth at 2.5% Other apartments on airport island Construction permits for other apartments are zero Competitive apartments number about 3,500 Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Final Market Analysis: Key Assumptions

All else equal, apartment rental rates grow at the rate of inflation Job growth drives apartment demand on airport island No other new apartments for two years Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Projections of Critical Parameters for Plane Vista Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Questions about the Plane Vista Analysis

Which of the key assumptions seems most vulnerable to error? What could be done to reduce its riskiness? Does the projection of job growth on Airport Island seem safe? Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Some Final Observations on the Plane Vista Analysis A market analysis is always a story No market analysis is purely numbers Goal: Put together as much objective evidence as possible before making final judgments Articulate the key assumptions as clearly as

possible (Example: Airport growth was crucial to the Plane Vista story) Next step: How to translate these into an estimate of value Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. A Perspective on Real Estate Value James Graaskamp: When you buy real estate, you are buying a set of assumptions about the future We have set out our assumptions about

Plane Vista Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Some Points about Real Estate Market Cycles Real estate markets differ in cyclicality Office demand follow business cycles, and is very cyclical Apartments are less so since households must live somewhere Longer construction lead time means more cyclicality

Poorer market information means more cyclicality Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Example of Market Cycles: Apartment Vacancy Rates Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. High-Tech Tools for Real Estate Market Research Geographic information systems (GIS) Made analysis of Plane Vista possible Widely used in store location research

Psychographics Market segmentation research seeks to relate product preferences to attitudes, interests, opinions, and values, and to demographics Used to date in retail real estate, but may also apply to housing Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. GIS in Store Location Research: Columbia, SC Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Survey Research

Potentially powerful tool if used carefully Example applications Coastal Condo design: How many bedrooms do prospective buyers want? Plane Vista: Where do current residents really work? Risk: Ending up with meaningless questions or a meaningless sample Key preventative tools: Obtain review and advice from experienced survey researchers Pretest Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

End of Chapter 6 Copyright 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

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