Chapter 5

Chapter 5

Chapter 5 The Enlightenment and the American Revolution 1700-1800 5-1 Objectives-What you need to focus on How did ideas in science change from Medieval times to after the mid 1500s? How is our world different today b/c of the Scientific Revolution? How did changes in science lead to

changes in other areas of life such as the relationship between people and government? Old Ways of Thinking Medieval View- views of science and the world around us were based on ancient teachings and the church. Anything that could not be explained was deemed magic or mystical. Example-Geocentric Theory- old view that the earth was the center of the universe.

Scientific Revolution Scientific Revolution-by the 1500s great advances in science were made due to new inventions and approaches in science. People started placing value on truths that could be proven rather than magic, mysticism, and ancient writings. Natural Law-rules discoverable by reason,

govern scientific forces such as gravity and magnetism. Developments out of the Scientific Revolutio Heliocentric Theory- idea that the sun was the center of the universe. Nicolaus Copernicus-believed earth was round, and that the earth revolved around the sun. (Heliocentric Theory) This went against the previously accepted Geocentric Theory- which means that the earth was the center of the

universe. Johannes Kepler proved Copernicus theory using math. He proved planets move in ellipses or oval paths. Galileo 1564-1642 Built his own telescope, and published works that the sun was center of the universe. Galileo

published his findings and was forced by the Church to say his writings were false or face torture. He lived under house arrest until he died. Is there still tension between religion and Modern Science? How so?

Developments of the Scientific Revolution Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes-helped to develop the scientific method which showed scientific thought is not assumed but proven. Question Hypothesis Experiment Analyze Conclusion Both men believed in rejecting old

assumptions and proving things based on math and scientific reasoning Why might the Church dislike the ideas of Bacon and Descartes? Isaac Newton mathematical genius who discovered gravity. The same force rules the motion of the planets and all matter in earth and space. Scientific Revolution Spreads to other fields Scientific instruments- microscope, barometer

and thermometer (Gabriel Farenheit) Medical- dissection of human corpses (Andreas Vesalius), vaccinations-ex. smallpox, red blood cells, bacteria Chemistry-matter, Boyles law-how volume, temperature and pressure of gas affect each other, carbonation, etc. Summary The scientific revolution brought reason and

proof into the field of science and threw out age old religion and theories Many important scientists contributed to the Scientific Revolution. Can you name some? What other fields besides astronomy were impacted by the Scientific Revolution How would our world be different without the Scientific Revolution? Basing value on proof (using natural laws) will cause people to question government authority over their lives, education and how

goods and services are distributed Government should exist to represent and protect the people Is this a radical idea??????? Scientific Revolution leads to Enlightenment Advances in science led philosophers to question old theories and authority. This branched into philosophers starting to question the way social classes were

structured and the governments that had power over them Natural Law was used to study human behavior and solve problems of society. *Notes from the book start here* 5-1 Objectives-what you need to know How changes in science led people to question government and society What were governments like around the world before the Enlightenment ?

Know Enlightenment philosophers and the ideas they proposed. Focus Question: What effects did Enlightenment philosophers have on government, education and economics (the way goods and services are distributed) The Enlightenment Period Time period- Late 1600s into the 1700s. Location-European cities Definition- A time period of new thoughts and

ideas that applied human logic and reason to the world. Philosophers stressed that individuals had the power to solve problems. Many important philosophers during this time period influenced political thought in the 18th century. This time is also know as the Age of Reason The Enlightenment Period cont Philosophers challenged the norm by rejecting the Divine Right of Kingsmeaning kings had the right to rule

because they were chosen by God. Philosophers thought government should be responsive to the people Philosophers common beliefs about society Philosophers during this time had predominately 2 separate beliefs 1. That overall society and people were good. There was no need for an oppressive government to keep control in society

2. That overall society is evil and strict government was necessary in order to maintain a civil society Most philosophers believed in the first view Thomas Hobbes People enter into a social contract between themselves and

government. People give up some of their natural rights to a sovereign ruler or government to help maintain order among people. This helps prevent war. People fear chaos and death. He wrote the Thomas Hobbes' book

the Leviathan was written in 1651. How does the title page to the right demonstrate his beliefs? All people have natural John Locke

rights. He felt natural rights were the freedom to life, liberty, and property. Government has an obligation to protect peoples natural rights and not take advantage of their position in power. If government does not do this people have a right to rebellion.

Do you agree with Hobbes or Locke? Jean Jacques Believed in the common good Roussea of the community. This u common good was liberty and

freedom. Rousseaus social contract consisted of government receiving power as long as they protected peoples natural rights. Rousseaus social contract greatly differed from Thomas Hobbes. Voltaire Believed in the freedom of religions

and speech. He spoke out against the French government and Catholic Church. He was imprisoned. Believed in the separation of powers in government. These powers should be split up into legislative,

executive, and judicial branches. The branches would have the power to check each other to stop one branch from gaining to much power. Baron de Montesquieu

Believed that laws existed to preserve social order, not to avenge crimes. He focused his writings on reforming the criminal justice system. He wanted to end torturing witnesses, irregular proceedings in trials, and punishments that were cruel. In his view capital punishment should be

abolished. Cesare Beccaria Iron Maiden Most persuasive female philosopher who believed that believed in equal education for women

Wanted women to take part in male dominated fields like medicine and politics Many women wrote about Enlightenment philosophies in relation to womens treatment in society Mary

Wollstonecraft Summary-The Enlightenment Period Produced lasting effects on each of the following areas: Social/Culture- gave citizens more freedom of thought politically and religiously. Ex. Citizens could set up own government, explore new religious thought, people stared rejecting the churchs ideas. Overall a belief in progress and a more secular outlook. Economic- gave citizens a chance to pursue happiness. by defeating the class system. (ex. French Revolution)

Adam Smiths Wealth of Nations proposed laissez-faire and opposed (mercantilism) government regulated trade. Political-new systems of government were set up making rights of the individual the main priority. Democracy and Representative Republics Vocab Divine Right of Kings Mercantilism

Enlightenment Salons Natural Rights Secular Philosophes Laissez-fair

All of the Enlightenment Philosophers believed in natural rights. Which of the following statements does not represent Enlightenment thought? a. People have natural rights. b. There should be a system of checks and balances in government. c. All people have the right to worship, think, and speak as they choose d. The power of the Monarch is Absolute

e. Rebellion is justified if the ruler no longer has the consent of the people. Chapter 5-2 Objectives Relate historical events to the arts and how people express themselves throughout time. As Enlightenment changes spread across Europe summarize the cultural and political changes that took place? Summarize the difference between

Baroque and Rococo art styles How did the Enlightenment spread when it was illegal to speak out against the government or Catholic Church? Cities-Paris, London etc.

Books-Diderots Encyclopedia Word of mouth Salons- meeting places where philosophers exchanged ideas. Newspapers Political songs Pamphlets The Enlightenment Catches On The Enlightenment ideas became so popular that art, music and literature

reflected how culture changed. Literature Many writers were censored so philosophes disguised ideas in works of fiction. Example-Gullivers Travels in 1726 by

Johnathan Swift Novels-lengthy pieces of writing with a plot, characters and suspenseful stories. Art 1600s and 1700s was dominated by Baroque style-grand ornate design After the Enlightenment artists started

using a more simple and elegant style. Rococo- moved away from religion and was lighter and more elegant. Rococo was reflected in music, clothing and architecture. See page 190 Baroque vs. Rococo Baroque Think Palace of Versailles, Rembrandt (painter), sculpted

fountains Rococo Think lighthearted and charming, less powerful and serious Portrait Landscapes Music The Enlightenment produced a lighter

more elegant style of music known as classical. Composers-Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven More middle class people by mid 1700s could pay to concerts to be preformed publicly. At left: Mozart At right: Beethoven

Enlightenment and Monarchy Some Monarchs during the 1700s were willing to listen to the philosophers Enlightened Despot (absolute ruler)- a king/queen that embraced enlightenment ideas and made reforms in their countries Why would Monarchs agree to make reforms based on Enlightenment ideals? Enlightened Despots Frederick the Greatking of Prussia and

granted religious freedom reduced censorship and bettered education He was the first servant to the state Enlightened Despots Joseph II-son of Maria Theresa and eventual king of Austria

He made many reforms such as free press, freedom of religion ended serfdom and cash for peasants Enlightened Despots Catherine the Greatruled Russia during the late 1700s She exchanged letters

and ideas with Voltaire and others Made reforms to allow religious freedom, reform criminal justice She later ended reforms after rebellions occurred Summary The Enlightenment started in Europe and spread world wide starting in the 1700s.

Art music and literature were impacted by the Enlightenment-more middle class will start to influence and enjoy the arts Monarchs began to listen to Enlightenment ideas but did not make drastic changes Most peoples peasant lives will not change until later in the 1800s when radical ideas turn into revolution Objective-Section 3

Recognize the Enlightenment ideas we have learned and understand how it influenced the American Revolution and US government. Background Info on the start of Revolution Influence of Britains global power on revolution (see the handout I gave you for section 5-3

Section 3 Birth of the American Republic List ideas from the Enlightenment that Thomas Jefferson and our founding Fathers incorporated into the U.S. Declaration of Independence and Constitution. Include the Enlightenment thinker with the idea in your answers. Enlightenment Ideas

Personal Liberty- Freedom of Speech/Religion No Social Classes = opportunity Responsive Government Rebellion Natural Rights-Life, liberty Property - Enlightenment Ideas Womens rights Rights for minorities (ban slavery) Social Contract Separation of Powers Criminal Rights- Practice Question How did the Declaration of Independence embody Enlightenment ideals? A. It stated that all titles of nobility should be

abolished. B. It protected the rights of the accused and prohibited cruel punishment. C. It set up a system of checks and balances for the U.S. government. D. It said that people have rights of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Project Time!!! Pick one of the following quotes Illustrate the meaning of the quote you chose

Place a short explanation of your illustration on the back Illustrations should be bold and colorful Computer images may be used Quotes Rousseau Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains. VoltaireI do not agree with what you say but will defend to the death your right to say it. Thomas HobbesWithout governments, there would be warof

every man against every man. Baron de MontesquieuPower should be a check to power

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