# Chapter #4, Section 4.5 - Mars at UMHB

MOMENT ABOUT AN AXIS Todays Objectives: Students will be able to determine the moment of a force about an axis using In-Class Activities: a) scalar analysis, and Check Homework b) vector analysis. Reading Quiz Applications Scalar Analysis Vector Analysis Concept Quiz Group Problem Solving

Attention Quiz READING QUIZ 1. When determining the moment of a force about a specified axis, the axis must be along _____________. A) the x axis B) the y axis C) the z axis D) any line in 3-D space E) any line in the x-y plane 2. The triple scalar product u ( r F ) results in

A) a scalar quantity ( + or - ). B) a vector quantity. C) zero. D) a unit vector. E) an imaginary number. APPLICATIONS With the force P, a person is creating a moment MA. Does all of MA act to turn the socket? How would you calculate an answer to this question? APPLICATIONS

Sleeve A of this bracket can provide a maximum resisting moment of 125 Nm about the x-axis. How would you determine the maximum magnitude of F before turning about the x axis occurs? SCALAR ANALYSIS Recall that the moment of a scalar force about any point O is MO= F dO where dO is the perpendicular (or shortest) distance from the point to the forces line of action. This concept can be extended to find the moment of a force about an axis.

Finding the moment of a force about an axis can help answer the types of questions we just considered. SCALAR ANALYSIS In the figure above, the moment about the y-axis would be My= Fz (dx) = F (r cos ). However, unless the force can easily be broken into components and the d found quickly, such calculations are not always trivial and vector analysis may be much easier (and less likely to produce errors). VECTOR ANALYSIS Our goal is to find the moment of F

(the tendency to rotate the body) about the axis a- a. First compute the moment of F about any arbitrary point O that lies on the a- a axis using the cross product. MO = r F Now, find the component of MO along the axis a- a using the dot product. Ma-a = ua MO

VECTOR ANALYSIS (continued) Ma- a can also be obtained as The above equation is also called the triple scalar product. In the this equation, ua represents the unit vector along the axis a-a axis, r is the position vector from any point on the a-a axis to any point A on the line of action of the force, and F is the force vector. EXAMPLE Given: A force is applied to

the tool to open a gas valve. A B Find: The magnitude of the moment of this force about the z axis of the value. Plan: 1) Use Mz = u (r F). 2) Note that u = 1 k. 3) The vector r is the position vector from A to B.

4) Force F is already given in Cartesian vector form. EXAMPLE (continued) u = 1k A A B rAB = {0.25 sin 30 i + 0.25 cos30 j} m B = {0.125 i + 0.2165 j} m

F = {60 i + 20 j + 15 k} N Now find Mz = u (rAB F) Mz = 0 0 1 0.125 0.2165 0 -60 20 15 = 1{ 0.125 (20) 0.2165 (60) } Nm

= 15.5 Nm CONCEPT QUIZ 1. The vector operation (P Q) R equals A) P (Q R). B) R (P Q). C) (P R) (Q R). D) (P R) (Q R ). CONCEPT QUIZ 2. The force F is acting along DC. Using the triple product to

determine the moment of F about the bar BA, you could use any of the following position vectors except ______. A) rBC B) rAD C) rAC D) rDB E) rBD

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING Given: Sleeve A can provide a maximum resisting moment of 125 Nm about the x-axis. Find: The maximum magnitude of F before slipping occurs at A (the sleeve rotating around the x-axis). Plan: 1) We need to use MX = u (rAB F) 2) Find rAB 3) Find F in Cartesian vector form. 4) Complete the triple scalar product & solve for F !

SOLUTION rAB = {( 0.15 0) i + (0.30 0) j + (0.10 0) k} m F = F {( cos 60 i + cos 60 j + cos 45 k)} N = { 0.5 F i + 0.5 F j + 0.707 F k} N SOLUTION (continued) Now find the triple product, Mx = u (rAB F) MX = 1 -0.15 -0.5F

0 0.3 0.5F 0 0.1 Nm 0.707F Mx = 1 {0.3 (0.707F) 0.1 (0.5F)} + 0 + 0 = 0.162 F Nm Mx = 125 Nm = maximum moment along x-axis 125 = 0.162 F FMAX = 771 N

ATTENTION QUIZ 1. For finding the moment of the force F about the x-axis, the position vector in the triple scalar product should be ___ . A) rAC B) rBA C) rAB D) rBC 2. If r = {1 i + 2 j} m and F = {10 i + 20 j + 30 k} N, then

the moment of F about the y-axis is ____ Nm. A) 10 B) -30 C) -40 D) None of the above.

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