Chapter 4 Atomic Structure Ms. Wang Lawndale High School Section 4.1 - Defining the Atom All matter is composed of particles called atoms Atoms the smallest particle of an element that retains it identity in a chemical reaction
Democrituss Philosophy Democritus was the first to suggest the existence of atoms being indivisible and indestructible By using experimental methods, Dalton transformed Democrituss ideas on atoms into a scientific theory Daltons Atomic Theory
(1.) All elements are composed of tiny indivisible particles called atoms. (2.) Atoms of the same element are identical. The atoms of any one element are different from those of any other element. (3.) Atoms of different elements can physically mix together or can chemically combine in simple whole-number ratios to form compounds. (4.) Chemical reactions occur when atoms are separated, joined, or rearranged. Atoms of one element, however, are never changed into atoms of another element as a result of a
Section 4.2 The Structure of the Atom There are three kinds of subatomic particles in an atom: electrons, protons, and neutrons In 1897, J. J. Thomson discovered the electron (negatively charged subatomic particles) by using a cathode ray Protons Atoms were known to be electrically neutral, which meant that there had to be some positively charged matter to
balance the negative charges Rutherfords Gold-Foil Experiment Ernest Rutherfords experiment disproved the plum pudding model of the atom and suggested that there was a positively charged nucleus (central core of an atom) Conclusion of Rutherfords Experiment Atoms are mostly empty space, thus
explaining the lack of deflection of most of the alpha particles All the positive charge and almost all the mass of an atom are concentrated in a small region (nucleus) Nucleus tiny central core of an atom composed of protons and neutrons Electrons are distributed around the nucleus and occupy almost all the volume of the atom (marble and football stadium) Structure Of An Atom
Properties of Subatomic Particles PARTICLE SYMBOL CHARGE Electron e- -1
Proton p+ +1 Neutron n0 0
Homework Section Assessment 4-1 #s 4,5 Section Assessment 4-2 #s 8-14 Now on to the labThe Mystery Box!!! Each group will go their their home lab station and try to determine the shape of the object inside their box by moving the box around. After 2.5 minutes of explorations, record your observations and move to the next lab station. Mystery Boxes Purpose: To determine the shape of the object inside the box
Lab Statio n 1 2 3 4 5 6 Observations
Conclusio n (guess whats in the box) Section 4.3 Distinguishing Among Atoms Elements are different because they contain different numbers of protons. Atomic Number - the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
*Remember since atoms are electrically neutral, the number of protons equals the number of electrons Quick Practice How many protons and electrons are in each atom? 1. Fluorine (atomic number = 9) 2. Calcium (atomic number = 20) 3. Aluminum (atomic number = 13) How about these? 4. Boron
5. Neon 6. Magnesium Mass Number Mass Number the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom Thereforethe number of neutrons in an atom is the difference between the mass number and the atomic number # of Neutrons = Mass # Atomic # Shorthand Notation
(You need to know this notation) Mass Numb er 179 79 Atomic Number A u
Atomi c Symb ol Practice Shorthand Notation How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in each atom? Atomic # Mass #
11 23 How many neutrons are in each atom? 1. Carbon-12 6 2. Fluorine-19 10
3. Sulfur 32 16 Isotopes Isotopes atoms that have the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons (also different mass numbers) Write the following isotopes of oxygen: 1. Oxygen-16 2. Oxygen-17 3. Oxygen-18
Atomic Mass Atomic Mass weighted average mass of the atoms in a naturally occurring sample of the element In order to calculate the atomic mass of an element: (1.) Multiply the mass of each isotope by its natural abundance (2.) Add the products together Lets practice Calculate the atomic mass of the following
element, X The isotope 10X has a mass of 10.012amu and a relative abundance of 19.91%. The isotope 11X has a mass of 11.009amu and a relative abundance of 80.09%. ANSWER = 10.810amu More Practice 1. The element copper has naturally occurring isotopes with mass numbers of 63 and 65. The relative abundance and atomic masses are 69.2% for mass = 62.93amu, and 30.8% for mass =
64.93amu. Calculate the average atomic mass of copper. 2. Calculate the atomic mass of bromine. The two isotopes of bromine have atomic masses and relative abundance of 78.92amu (50.69%) and 80.92amu Preview of the Periodic Table Periodic Table an arrangement of elements in which the elements are separated into groups based on a set of properties Period horizontal rows of the periodic table (there are 7)
Group/Family vertical columns of the periodic table Elements within a group have similar chemical and physical properties Homework Chapter 4 Assessment Page 122 #s 34 55, 59, 61, 64, 65, 71, 78, 81, 85, 88
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