Chapter 34

Chapter 34

Interdependence and the Gains from Trade Chapter 3 Interdependence and Trade Remember, economics is the study of how societies produce and distribute goods in an attempt to satisfy the wants and needs of its members. How do we satisfy our wants and needs in a global economy? We can be economically selfsufficient. We can specialize and trade with others,

leading to economic interdependence (I.e. Globalization) A Parable for the Modern Economy Imagine . . . only two goods: potatoes and meat only two people: a potato farmer and a cattle rancher What should each produce?

Why should they trade? The Production Opportunities of the Farmer and the Rancher Farmer Rancher Hours Needed to Make 1 lb. of: Meat Potatoes 20 hours/lb 10 hours/lb 1 hours/lb 8 hours/lb. Amount Produced in 40 Hours

Meat Potatoes 2 lbs. 4 lbs. 40 lbs. 5 lbs. Production Possibilities Frontiers Meat (pounds) (a) The Farmers Production Possibilities Frontier 2 1

0 A 2 4 Potatoes (pounds) Meat (pounds) Production Possibilities Frontiers 40

(b) The Ranchers Production Possibilities Frontier B 20 0 2.5 5 Potatoes (pounds)

The Gains from Trade: A Summary Farmer Rancher The Outcome Without Trade: What They Produce and Consume 1 lb meat (A) 2 lbs potatoes 20 lbs meat (B) 2.5 lbs potatoes The Gains from Trade: A Summary

Farmer Rancher The Outcome With Trade: What They Produce 0 lbs meat 4 lbs potatoes 24 lbs meat 2 lbs potatoes What They Trade Gets 3 lbs meat for 1 lb potatoes

Gives 3 lbs meat for 1 lb potatoes What They Consume 3 lbs meat ( A*) 3 lbs potatoes 21 lbs meat ( B*) 3 lbs potatoes Trade Expands the Set of Consumption Possibilities (a) How Trade Increases the Farmers Consumption Meat

(pounds) Farmers consumptio n with trade A* 3 Farmers consumptio n without trade 2 1

0 A 2 3 4 Potatoes (pounds) Trade Expands the Set of Consumption Meat 40 Possibilities (pounds)

(b) How Trade Increases The Ranchers Consumption 21 20 B* Ranchers consumptio n with trade B Ranchers consumptio n without

trade 0 2.5 3 5 Potatoes (pounds) The Gains from Trade: A Summary Farmer Rancher

The Gains From Trade: The Increase in Consumption 2 lbs meat (A*- A) 1 lb potatoes 1 lb meat (B*- B) 1/2 lb potatoes The Farmer and the Rancher Specialize and Trade Each would be better off if they specialized in producing the product they are more suited to produce, and then trade with each other.

The farmer should produce potatoes. The rancher should produce meat. The Principle of Comparative Advantage Differences in the costs of production determine the following: Who should produce what? How much should be traded for each product? Who can produce potatoes at a lower cost--the farmer or the rancher? Absolute Advantage Describes the productivity of one person,

firm, or nation compared to that of another. Absolute advantage can be measured in two ways: Least number of hours to produce a good. Most number of goods produced in a given amount of time. Comparative Advantage Compares producers of a good according to their opportunity cost.

The producer who has the smaller opportunity cost of producing a good is said to have a comparative advantage in producing that good. The Opportunity Cost of Meat and Potatoes 1 pound of meat 1 pound of potatoes Farmer 2 pounds of

potatoes 1/2 pound of meat Rancher 1/8 pounds of potatoes 8 pounds of meat Should Tiger Woods Mow His Own Lawn? ?

? ? What are the pros and cons of Globalization? Globalization means that free trade is spread to all corners of the world with no hindrances. Globalization Vide o

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