Chapter 31: Environmental Economics - Olympic College

Chapter 31: Environmental Economics - Olympic College

Chapter 31: Environmental Economics Roger LeRoy Miller reserved. Economics Today, Sixteenth Edition 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights Which of the following statements best defines private costs? A. They are internal in the sense that the firm or household must explicitly take them into account. B. They are costs borne by people other than those who commit the action. C. They are synonymous with social costs. D. They represent explicit costs incurred by business firms in the private sector.

Roger LeRoy Miller reserved. Economics Today, Sixteenth Edition 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights Refer to the figure below. It represents supply and demand for The Black Ash Steel Company's output. The firm's plant belches large quantities of smelly fumes and black ash into the air. Residents in the surrounding area have higher medical bills as a result. If the firm is forced to pay the full social cost of its production, what will occur? A. Black Ash's supply curve will shift from SA to SB. B. Demand for the firm's steel will shift to the left.

C. The company's supply curve will shift from SB to SA. D. Black Ash will increase its own output to cover the cost increase. Roger LeRoy Miller reserved. Economics Today, Sixteenth Edition 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights Which of the following is NOT a possible solution to the problem of pollution? A. Subsidizing the costs of production of activities that generate pollution B. Converting a resource that is communally owned into a privately owned resource C. Regulating the quantity of pollution that can be generated

D. Imposing a pollution tax on producers Roger LeRoy Miller reserved. Economics Today, Sixteenth Edition 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights When an external cost exists that is NOT taken into account in the production of a product, A. the level of output is too low, and the supply curve should shift to the right to account for the externality. B. the level of output is optimal, and there should be no change in the supply curve. C. the price of the product is too high, and production should be expanded to lower

the price. D. the level of output is too high, and the supply curve should shift to the left to account for the externality. Roger LeRoy Miller reserved. Economics Today, Sixteenth Edition 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights Assuming that pollution cannot be removed from the environment at zero cost, the optimal level of pollution A. B. C. D.

will be zero. will be negative. will be positive. cannot be determined. Roger LeRoy Miller reserved. Economics Today, Sixteenth Edition 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights The costs of pollution abatement A. increase at an increasing rate with the increase in pollution abatement. B. increase at a decreasing rate with the increase in pollution abatement. C. decrease at an increasing rate with the increase in pollution abatement.

D. decrease at a decreasing rate with the increase in pollution abatement. Roger LeRoy Miller reserved. Economics Today, Sixteenth Edition 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights Refer to the figure below. The marginal cost of pollution abatement is curve A. B. C. D. (1). (2).

(3). (4). Roger LeRoy Miller reserved. Economics Today, Sixteenth Edition 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights Suppose people value clean air more as their incomes increase, then A. the marginal cost curve of pollution abatement to shift left, increasing the degree of air quality. B. the marginal cost curve of pollution abatement to shift right, increasing the degree of air quality C. the marginal benefit curve of pollution abatement to shift right, increasing the degree

of air quality D. the marginal benefit curve of pollution abatement to shift left, increasing the degree of air quality Roger LeRoy Miller reserved. Economics Today, Sixteenth Edition 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights When negative externalities exist, a voluntary agreement can be negotiated. Which of the following statements is true? A. Voluntary agreements usually do not work since the owner has no incentive to negotiate. B. Transactions costs must be low relative to the expected benefits of reaching an

agreement. C. Voluntary agreements are difficult to negotiate because they usually involve government intervention. D. Voluntary agreements always leave the owner worse off. Roger LeRoy Miller reserved. Economics Today, Sixteenth Edition 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights Common property often results in A. B. C. D.

a negative externality. a social benefit. a private cost. exclusive rights of ownership. Roger LeRoy Miller reserved. Economics Today, Sixteenth Edition 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights When there is a resource for which property rights are not well defined and there is a difference between private costs and social costs, then all but which of the following is a way to close the difference? A. B.

C. D. the free market system taxation subsidization regulation Roger LeRoy Miller reserved. Economics Today, Sixteenth Edition 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights In a situation in which property rights are not well-defined and social costs exceed private costs, government can use all of the following to induce producers to bring

private costs into alignment with social costs EXCEPT A. taxing production. B. coercive limits on production. C. subsidization of production. D. regulation of production. Roger LeRoy Miller reserved. Economics Today, Sixteenth Edition 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights The Framework Convention on Climate Change took place in A. B. C.

D. the the the the 1973-1979 Tokyo Round. 1987-1993 Uruguay Round. 1997 Kyoto Protocol. 2001 Doha Round. Roger LeRoy Miller reserved. Economics Today, Sixteenth Edition 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights

Participating nations in the 1997 Kyoto Protocol agreed to reduce overall greenhouse gases emission through 2020 to A. as much as the 1990s. B. as much as the 1990s. C. as much as the 1990s. D. as much as the 1960s. 20 percent below the levels in 5 percent below the levels in 50 percent below the levels in 50 percent below the levels in Roger LeRoy Miller reserved.

Economics Today, Sixteenth Edition 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights By 2006, the market price of European Union emissions allowances dropped because A. governments set their overall emission caps too high. B. firms had drastically reduced their emissions. C. firms underreport their emission amounts. D. the market did not clear. Roger LeRoy Miller reserved. Economics Today, Sixteenth Edition

2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights If pollution is bad, why do we still use pollution-causing resources such as coal and oil to generate electricity? A. Governments lack the political will to enforce the use of pollution-free resources. B. The cost of using pollution-free resources to generate power in many circumstances is much higher than generating that same power through conventional pollutioncausing means. C. Pollution is only a private cost. D. The transaction costs of pollution are too low. Roger LeRoy Miller reserved. Economics Today, Sixteenth Edition

2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights Many ecologists argue that several species of whales are close to extinction. If this is true, the reason is A. inadequate enforcement of international laws. B. whales are a type of common property. C. the marginal benefit of hunting and killing a whale is greater than zero. D. whale-killing technology is too productive. Roger LeRoy Miller reserved. Economics Today, Sixteenth Edition 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights

Which of the following is most likely to be common property? A. B. C. D. a cat in a house farm raised catfish in Alabama tuna in the Pacific Ocean cattle on a Texas ranch Roger LeRoy Miller reserved. Economics Today, Sixteenth Edition 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights

Which of the following is most likely to be private property? A. B. C. D. bees house flies farm-raised chickens winds Roger LeRoy Miller reserved. Economics Today, Sixteenth Edition 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights

Wild animals are likely to be A. B. C. D. private property. endangered species. domesticated by humans. all of the above. Roger LeRoy Miller reserved. Economics Today, Sixteenth Edition 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights

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