Chapter 20

Chapter 20

Test 2 News Keep your Tests in your notebook but

return your Scantron forms and the Manipulative. Some of the questions will appear on the comprehensive final. Discuss questions that you missed with your team mates. The Plan

Locate your name tag.

Remove the team role name and leave it on the desk in front of you. Leave the team name sign on the desk as well. Get ready to move Remember Attendance

Sheets EGR Hands-on XO Gathers Supplies

COM Recorder + Chalkboard CO Speaks for the Team + Attendance

Chapter 14 & 15 Light and Color Inside My Eye Supplement

Parts of the Human Eye (Supplement Handout)

Cornea bends light Iris controls the amount of light Pupil - opening Lens focuses light onto retina

Retina back of eye Fovea center of your vision Optic Nerve signal wire (causes blind spot) Blind Spot Demo (Page 265) O X

Rods - brightness receptors Cones - color receptors Three Types: Red, Green, Blue Cones are more numerous in the center of your vision. Rods are more numerous around the periphery of your vision.

Demo Moving markers near periphery Color Deficiency Color Vision Colorblindness - about 10% of population

Red-green is predominant Yellow-blue - a few What is color? Different wavelengths of light are

perceived as different colors. White light contains equal amounts of these colors. (ROY G. BIV) Fill in the Blanks

absorb all of the pure Black objects _______ colors.

reflect all of the pure White objects _______ colors. transmit all of the Transparent objects _______

pure colors. Color Filters Red filters transmit red light and absorb the other colors.

Red objects reflect red light and absorb the rest. In red light, what color do the red petals

and green leaves of rose appear? Color Filters Red filters transmit red light and absorb the other colors.

Red objects reflect red light and absorb the rest. In red light, what color do the red petals and

green leaves of rose appear? Answers: Petals appear red Leaves appear to be black

Color Filters The following color filters are yours to keep in the zip-lock bags: Red, Green, Blue Yellow, Magenta, Cyan

Flashlights All flashlights must work for this exercise. Mixing Colored Light Color Addition

Additive Primary Colors: Red Green Blue

One can produce any color by varying amplitude and mixture or red, green and blue light. Color Addition Examples: Tiny dots called pixels on Color TV's and

Computer Monitors are colored only red, green, or blue. Color Addition Lab Exercise (two pages) Color Addition Equations

Remember Attendance Sheets (Role Rotation) XO EGR

Gathers Supplies Hands-on CO COM

Speaks for the Team + Attendance Recorder + Chalkboard Lab Exercises

White Light and Color Addition Wheels Everyone will color Roy G. Biv onto the 7 segment wheel. XO Red + Blue = ?

CO Red + Green = ? ENG Blue + Green = ? COM Red + Blue + Green = ? Mixing Colored Pigments Color Subtraction

Subtractive Primary Colors: Yellow Magenta Cyan

One can produce any color by varying the amount of yellow, magenta and cyan pigments. Color Subtraction Examples:

Newspapers, magazines, books Zip-lock with colored seals Color Subtraction Lab Exercise (two pages) Color Subtraction Equations

Color Subtraction Using Crayons Lab Exercise Chromatography Lab Exercise

Primary Colors White Red Green Blue Yellow Cyan Magenta

Pure Green Color Addition Primary Green Green

Complementary Colors - any two colors that add together to produce white e.g. magenta + green = white

Engineering Astronomy Physics And our flag was still there... Spiral

After Images and Conal Fatigue The human eye will see

complimentary colors after staring at a color picture. Demos: Colored Shapes Texas Flag American Flag Rose Lincoln

Lab Supplement Color a Flag with Complementary Colors Move this page forward

What color would we use so that the afterimage is red, white and blue? Write this on the supplement: Complementary Colors Use cyan, black, and green get an after image that is red, white and blue.

Optical Illusions Animation Transparent and Opaque Transparent

you can identify objects through it Translucent

(14.2) you see diffuse light coming through it Opaque

you cannot see any light coming through it Opaque objects cast shadows. Can Light Pass Through Lab Exercise

Transparency Lab Exercise Pattern for Flashlight Reflector Shield Lab Exercise Why? We want a point source of light rather than a beam

when we investigate the shadows created by opaque objects. Tall in the Shadow Lab Exercise Chapter 18 Spectra

The Electromagnetic Spectrum A range of light waves extending in wavelength from radio waves to gamma rays

The Electromagnetic Spectrum On Chalkboard The Electromagnetic Spectrum Radio Waves Microwaves

Infrared Visible Light Ultraviolet X-rays Gamma Rays Which form of light has the

longest wavelength? highest frequency? highest energy? fastest speed? The Electromagnetic Spectrum Radio Waves Microwaves

Infrared Visible Light Ultraviolet X-rays Gamma Rays

mnemonic

Raging Martians Invade Roy G. Biv Using X-rays and

Gamma Rays Radio Waves Microwaves Infrared

Visible Light Ultraviolet X-Rays Gamma Rays

SPF The SPF of a sunscreen is a laboratory measure of the effectiveness of sunscreen; the higher the SPF, the more protection a sunscreen offers against UVB (the ultraviolet radiation that causes sunburn). The SPF indicates the time a person can be exposed to sunlight before getting sunburn with a sunscreen applied relative to the time they can be

exposed without sunscreen. For example, someone who would burn after 12 minutes in the sun would expect to burn after 2 hours (120 min) if protected by a sunscreen with SPF 10. The Visible Spectrum A range of light waves extending in wavelength

from about 400 to 700 nanometers. Things that create a Spectrum Prism Raindrops CDs Spectroscopes

Contains a Diffraction Grating Diffraction Grating for Ziplock Bag Creating a Spectroscope

Roll up and tape black paper to form a tube. Cover end of the tube with foil.

Use a blade to make a slit in the foil. Temporarily tape the diffraction grating over the other end of the tube. Observe several light sources. Incandescent Light, Florescent Light, Neon Sign

Object Names Blue Bowl Red Bowl

Yellow Post-it Orange Post-it http://sciencekit.com/ Object Names

Red Filter Green Filter Yellow Filter Cyan Filter

Gustav Kirchhoff Robert Bunsen The Taste Test versus The Flame Test

Continuous Spectra Hot, dense solids produce a continuous spectrum. (All Colors)

Emission Spectra Hot gas produces a bright line emission spectrum. (Bright Lines) Absorption Spectra

Filters behind continuous sources give absorption spectrum. (Missing Colors) Example Questions

What type of spectra do each of the following have?

Flashlight bulb Frosted Incandescent lamp Neon Sign

Florescent light Red bowl Hot Solids Hot Gasses Cool objects that reflect light Structure of the Atom

Proton Neutron Electron Energy Levels

Absorption When an electron is raised to a higher energy level, the atom is said to be excited.

Emission When the electron returns to a lower energy level, energy is released in the form of light. Element Fingerprinting

Different transitions from high levels to low levels result in different colors of light. Every element can be fingerprinted by it spectra.

Hydrogen Helium Oxygen Carbon

Every element can be fingerprinted by it spectra. Matching Questions Type of Spectrum Appearance 1. Emission Spectra a. All Colors

2. Continuous Spectra b. Dark Lines 3. Absorption Spectra c. Bright Lines Matching Questions 1. Emission Spectra a. Hot Solids

2. Continuous Spectra b. Cool Solids 3. Absorption Spectra c. Hot Gases

Incandescence The color of light emitted by hot glowing solids changes with its temperature.

Glowing object colors: Reddish

coolest glowing object Orange-ish Yellowish White Bluish hottest glowing object Example Questions

The star Sirius is blue and Arcturus is yellow. Which is hotter?

Answer: Sirius, Im not kidding. Consider a red filter and a blue filter. Which is hotter? Answer: They should be the same temperature because they are not glowing.

Fluorescence Some materials that are excited by ultraviolet light can emit visible light upon de-excitation. This is fluorescence.

Demo - Black light and chalk Fluorescent Lamps Primary excitation - electron collisions with

low pressure mercury vapor, and ultraviolet light is given off Secondary excitation - ultraviolet light is absorbed by phosphors and these emit visible light

Phosphorescence

Phosphorescence - a type of light emission that is the same as fluorescence except for a delay between excitation and deexcitation. Electrons get "stuck" in an excited state and de-excite gradually. Demos - glow-in-the-dark objects Lasers

Laser

Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation Lasers produce coherent light. Coherent light means that all the light waves have the frequency, phase and direction. Demo - Laser and chalk dust Demo - Laser and prism or diffraction grating

Matching Questions 1. Incandescence a. mercury vapor light tubes 2. Fluorescence b. glow-in-the-dark paints and plastics 3. Phosphorescence

with filaments c. light bulbs Matching Questions 1. Fluorescent Lamp with temperature 2. Incandescent Bulb

of light 3. Laser c. converts visible light a. color changes b. only one color

ultraviolet light to Law of Reflection The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection.

This is true for both flat mirrors and curved mirrors. Convex Mirror - security mirror

Concave Mirror - vanity mirror Demo: Chalk Dust and Concave Mirror Types of Reflection

Specular Reflection - images seen on smooth surfaces (e.g. plane mirrors) Diffuse Reflection - diffuse light coming from a rough surface (cannot see a reflection of yourself)

Movie Reflection Demonstrations

Candle in Water Video (Movie) Terminator II Movie Supplemental Handouts

Funny Face Reverse Images Make a Kaleidoscope Please bring your book to class

tomorrow. EGR Hands-on XO Gathers Supplies

COM Recorder + Chalkboard CO Speaks for the Team + Attendance

Notebooks Due on Wednesday before the Exam. http://observe.phy.sfasu.edu/courses/ phy410/homework/NOTEBOOK.doc Principle of Least Time

Fermat's principle - light travels in straight lines and will take the path of least time A B Wrong Path

True Path MIRROR Refraction

Refraction is the bending of light when it passes from one transparent medium to another. This bending is caused by differences in the speed of light in the media.

WATER WAVE MOVIE Refraction Light Beam

Normal Line Fast AIR WATER Slow Refraction Examples

Light slows down when it goes from air into water and bends toward the normal.

An Analogy: A car slows down when it goes from pavement onto gravel and turns toward the normal. MOVIE Index of Refraction n=c/v Refraction

Observer AIR WATER False Fish True Fish

Lab Exercises Refraction Cup of Water and Pencil

Broken Pencil Movie Finding Object Under Water

Refraction Activities Procedure 1 - Shallow Appearance Procedure 2 - Spearing a Fish Procedure 3 - Broken Images

Dispersion... is the separation of white light into pure colors (ROY G. BIV). Dispersion

Examples: Prisms Diffraction Gratings Rainbows

Raindrops refract, reflect and disperse sunlight. Rainbows will always appear opposite of

the Sun in the sky. You cannot run from or run to a rainbow!

How can you make a rainbow? Remember Attendance Sheets (Role Rotation) XO

EGR Gathers Supplies Hands-on CO

COM Speaks for the Team + Attendance Recorder + Chalkboard

Lenses Converging Lens

Diverging Lens A lens that is thicker in the middle and refracts parallel light rays passing through to a focus. A lens that is thinner in the middle than at the

edges, causing parallel light rays to diverge. Team Exercise: Lens sorting Myopia (Near-Sightedness) People with near-sightedness cannot see clearly at distance.

What kind of corrective lens will they need? Hyperopia (Farsightedness) People with far-sightedness cannot see clearly up close. What kind of corrective lens will

they need? Where is the Image? Lab Exercise Making a Telescope Lab Exercise

Total Internal Reflection... is the total reflection of light traveling in a medium when it strikes a surface of a less dense medium

Demo - Laser and light pipe Example: Optical Fiber Ring Laser Underwater Movie

Woman Edge Pool Movie Critical Angle AIR

WATER Total Internal Reflection Light Source

Atmospheric Refraction Our atmosphere can bend light and create distorted images called mirages.

http://astro.sfasu.edu/movies/Highway Mirage 1.mpg What causes stars to twinkle?

Atmospheric Turbulence Mirage Cool air Warm air Because of atmospheric refraction,

we have lingering, elliptical sunsets. Sun Sun Earth Why is the sky blue?

Nitrogen and Oxygen in our atmosphere scatter high frequencies of light. Why are sunsets red?

Red light is scattered the least by our atmosphere. The greatest path of sunlight through the atmosphere is at sunset or sunrise.

Why are clouds white? The color of light scattered by clusters of water molecules vary with the size of the clusters.

The size of clusters of water molecules (droplets) vary in clouds. Why is the ocean greenish blue?

Red light is absorbed by the molecules in the water. Review for Test 3 Chapter 14

Color Chapter 15 Refraction

Chapter 18 Spectra Chapter 14 Section 14.3 through 14.8

Selective Reflection Selective Transmission Color Addition Color Subtraction Complementary Colors Conal Fatigue Why is the sky blue?

Why Sunsets are Red Chapter 15 Section 15.2 through 15.6

Refraction - Bending Speed in different media Apparent Water Depth Illusions and Mirages Atmospheric Refraction Dispersion Rainbows

Lenses and Telescopes Your Eye Image Formation Exercises

Bob the Builder and Filter Glasses Goggles - Supplement Kaleidoscope Animal Shadow

Prism Power Chromatography Diffraction a modification which light undergoes in

passing by the edges of bodies or through narrow slits and in which the rays appear to be deflected and to produce fringes of parallel light and dark or colored bands Water Wave Interference Movie

Multiple Slit Interference Movie Doppler Effect

the change in wavelength due to motion of the source or observer "Wheeeeeeeeeeee.Oooooooooooooo

Examples: Water, Sound, and Light

Wavelength Source at Rest What happens when the source in in motion? Movie #1 Java

Long Wavelength Low Frequency Low Pitch Ooooooo!!! Short Wavelength High Frequency

High Pitch Weeeeeeeee!!! Source in Motion As a team, describe what happens to the wavelength, frequency,

and pitch both in front of and behind a moving sound source. Doppler Effect Examples:

moving cars and trains

Sound Movie #2 moving buzzer in a nerf ball (in class) Chapter 14 & 15 Light and Color

Be prepared to turn in your notebook at the beginning of Test 3. It will be returned at the end of Test 3. Please keep your notebook after that for your future class. Test 3 Everyone starts Test 3 at 1pm. Manipulative Transparent, Translucent, Opaque

Spectra, Color, and Lenses Pendulum (Optional) Remember Attendance Sheets EGR Hands-on

XO Gathers Supplies COM Recorder + Chalkboard

CO Speaks for the Team + Attendance Remember Attendance Sheets Your view

XO EGR Gathers Supplies Hands-on

CO COM Speaks for the Team + Attendance Recorder +

Chalkboard Chapter 14 & 15 Light and Color Remember Attendance Sheets (Role Rotation)

CO Speaks for the Team + Attendance COM Recorder + Chalkboard

XO Gathers Supplies EGR Hands-on Remember Attendance

Sheets (Role Rotation) COM CO Recorder +

Chalkboard Speaks for the Team + Attendance EGR XO

Hands-on Gathers Supplies Remember Attendance Sheets (Role Rotation)

CO Speaks for the Team + Attendance COM Recorder + Chalkboard

XO Gathers Supplies EGR Hands-on Remember Attendance

Sheets (Role Rotation) COM CO Recorder +

Chalkboard Speaks for the Team + Attendance EGR XO

Hands-on Gathers Supplies

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