CHAPTER 2-ORIGINS OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT Section 1-Our Political Beginnings Pg.30-35 BASIC CONCEPTS OF GOVERNMENT Earliest settlers had knowledge of political systems Political system was based on practices in England ORDERED GOVERNMENT

Orderly regulation of relationships with one another Many offices created then are available today: sheriff, coroner, assessor, grand jury BASIC CONCEPTS OF GOVERNMENT LIMITED GOVERNMENT Government is not all powerful Government has restrictions Citizens have certain rights that governments cannot take away REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT

Peoples interests are represented in the government People should have a voice in deciding what government should and should not do LANDMARK ENGLISH DOCUMENTS THE MAGNA CARTA (1215) Aka the Great Charter Barons forced King John to sign because of military campaigns and heavy taxes

Fundamental rights: Trial by jury and due process of law Protection against arbitrary taking of life, liberty, or property These protections originally were for the privileged classes but they spread to everyone LANDMARK ENGLISH DOCUMENTS Magna Carta established the principle that the power of the monarchy was not absolute.

THE PETITION OF RIGHT 1621King Charles I asked Parliament for more tax money Parliament refused until he signed Petition LANDMARK ENGLISH DOCUMENTS Petition of Right-Limited Kings power Could not imprison or otherwise punish any

person but by lawful judgment of their peers Could not impose martial law in time of peace Could not require homeowners to shelter troops without consent Could not require tax without consent of Parliament LANDMARK ENGLISH DOCUMENTS THE BILL OF RIGHTS (ENGLAND) 1688-Crown offered to William and Mary of

Orange 1689-List of provisions Kings had to agree to. Prohibited standing army in peace time Required all parliamentary elections be free King could not suspend laws without consent of Parliament King could not tax citizens for the Crowns use without Parliaments consent LANDMARK ENGLISH DOCUMENTS The Bill of Rights also included guarantees as the right to a fair trial, and freedom from excessive bail and

from cruel and unusual punishment Our nation is built on ideals brought to North America but English settlers. THE ENGLISH COLONIES English colonies described as Thirteen schools of government 13 colonies were created separately, over 125 years

Jamestown 1607Savannah 1733 Each colony was borne out of a particular set of circumstances Each colony was established on the basis of a CHARTER (written grant of authority from the king) THE ENGLISH COLONIES ROYAL COLONIES: Subject to the direct control of the Crown 1775NH, MA, NY, NJ, VA, NC, SC, GA King named a governor as chief executive King also named an advisory council This council also served as the highest court The advisory council became the upper

house of a BICAMERAL legislature THE ENGLISH COLONIES The lower house was chosen by property owners qualified to vote Laws passed by the legislature had to be approved by the governor and the Crown

THE PROPRIETARY COLONIES: 1775-MD, PA, DE Organized by a PROPRIETOR (a person to which the King made a grant of land) THE ENGLISH COLONIES This land could be settled and governed as the proprietor saw fit Government was similar to royal colonies but appointed by the proprietor PA had a UNICAMERAL legislature

THE CHARTER COLONIES: Connecticut and Rhode Island These colonies were largely self-governing Governors were elected by white, male property owners THE ENGLISH COLONIES

Laws made by the bicameral legislature were not subject to governor or King approval Charters were so liberal that they were left untouched and made into state constitutions until 1818 (Conneciticut) and 1843 (Rhode Island) Guided Notes: 1.)Explain the concepts of ordered government, limited government, and representative government. 2.) What were some of the fundamental rights and principles established in the Magna Carta, the Petition of Right, and the English Bill of Rights? 3.) Identify and describe the three types of government in

the English colonies. 4.) Explain the difference between a bicameral and a unicameral legislative body. 5.) In what ways were the 13 colonies similar to one another? How did they differ?

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