Chapter 2

Chapter 2

Do Now Take out your APPARTS Opposing Viewpoints homework. Take out your Chapter 2 vocabulary cards for collection. Copy homework into your agenda. Share your APPARTS answers for both articles with the partner across the aisle from you. The Thirteen Colonies and the British Empire, 1607-1750 Chapter 2 Three Types of Charters 1. Corporate Colony Run by a joint-stock company

Like a corporation Middle class people pooled their small savings to start a business. 2. Royal Colony Directly under the kings rule 3. Proprietary Colony Ruled by people who were granted ownership by the king The king thought

this would give him almost total control. The Chesapeake Colonies (Part 1) Virginia Maryland Virginia Was given to George Calvert (Lord Baltimore) as a reward. = 1st proprietary colony Act of Toleration 1st law granting religious freedom Only applied to Christians; death to any who denied divinity of

Christ. Protestant Revolt/Civil War Resented Catholic proprietor; repealed Act of Toleration Bacons Rebellion Sir Wm Berkeley (royal governor) favored wealthy planters Didnt protect backwoods farmers from Indian attacks Nathanial Bacon Led the farmers in a rebellion. Volunteer army raided and massacred Indian Villages Defeated the governors forces; burned Jamestown

Later brutally suppressed. 2 Major Colonial Disputes in Virginia 1. CLASS DIFFERENCES (wealthy planters v. poor farmers) 2. COLONIAL RESISTANCE TO ROYAL CONTROL The Chesapeake Colonies: Labor Shortages (tobacco industry) Reasons for INITIAL slow growth: Unhealthy climate High death rate Disease Indian attacks Male-Female imbalance 40 million lbs exported annually 3 Solutions to Labor Shortage: 1. Indentured Servitude

Under the absolute rule of their master, who paid for their passage, room, and board, for 4-7 years After this, they gained their freedom, worked or farmed. 2. Head right System 50 acres were given to: An immigrant who paid for his own passage A plantation owner who paid an immigrants passage 3. Slavery Bacons rebellion demonstrated need for a new labor sourcecolonists

increasingly turned towards African slavery during the 17th century Initially, African slaves had the same status as indentured servants (not for life) House of Burgesses: in 1660s, enacted laws that discriminated against blacks (treated as lifelong slaves). Quiz Question 11 The colonial headright system: a. Was used in all of the colonies from Massachusetts to Georgia b. Gave land to slaves and indentured servants c. Parceled out land for each immigrant who came to the colony d. Parceled out land to those who helped settle and establish towns e. Gave land to only those who were freemen Label the Chesapeake Colonies

MARYLAND VIRGINIA The New England Colonies (Part 1) Massachusetts Bay Colony Strong Puritan convictions Dissidents were banned. New Hampshire King Charles separated it from Massachusetts, hoping to increase royal control in the colonies. Royal colony

Rhode Island Roger Williams [individual conscience] Founded Providence Paid Native Americans for land Complete religious toleration Anne Hutchinson [antinomianism: faith alone, not works salvation] Founded Portsmouth 1644: Charter RHODE ISLAND Religious freedom for all Connecticut Rev. Thomas Hooker [Boston Puritans] Founded Hartford Fundamental Orders of Connecticut = 1st written Constitution John Davenport Founded New Haven

1665: Royal Charter CONNECTICUT Some self-govt Quiz Question 12 Anne Hutchinson is most associated with which of the following: a. Antinomianism b. Predestination c. Connecticut d. John Cotton e. Roger Williams Quiz Question 13 Massachusetts Bay produced two spin-off colonies:_____ which wished to reproduce Puritan culture, and _____, which rejected it a. Connecticut and Rhode Island b. Rhode Island and New Jersey

c. New Jersey and New York d. New York and Pennsylvania e. Virginia and Pennsylvania The New England Colonies (Part 2) The Halfway Covenant People could take part in church services without formally declaring total belief in Christ. Native-born Puritans werent as committed to their religious faith. The Halfway Covenant helped keep the younger generation in the church. New England Federation This is an example of colonies taking unified action for a common purpose. Four New England Colonies formed a military alliance in the face of Native American attacks. (2 representatives/colony) King Phillips War [ended Native American resistance to the

Pequot War colonists] Annihilated Pequots over fur trade dispute. Metacom [a Wampanoag] (AKA King Phillip) united Southern New England This led Chief Metacom to believe the only way to tribes to attack English settlers. 1675-1676: war; manyencroachment villages were burned;

resist European wasthousands to unitewere withkilled Colonial other forces nativewon. tribes Quiz Question 14 A Puritan who had been baptized but who could not receive communion or vote on church matters probably joined the church under terms dictated by? a. The colonial governor b. The Halfway Covenant c. The legislature d. The Saybrook Platform

e. His own personal conscience Label the New England Colonies MASSACHUSSETS NEW HAMPSHIRE RHODE ISLAND CONNECTICUT The Restoration Colonies (Part 1) [King Charles II was returned to power after a brief Puritan rule under Oliver Cromwell.] South Carolina Charleston was founded by planters from Barbados (brought with them the plantation system and slave codes) Economy: rice, indigo, foodstuffs for West Indies where sugar was the main crop

North Carolina Small, self-sufficient tobacco farms Less reliance on slavery Democratic views like Rhode Island Autonomy from the British (resistant to authority) New York Charles II wanted to consolidate his colonies; he granted New Amsterdam to his brother (Duke of York) and sent a force to gain control of the colony. Renamed New Amsterdam New York: Freedom of worship, linguistic freedom Taxed colonists without allowing a representative assembly; repealed when colonists protested. New Jersey James felt New York was too big to govern, so he gifted a section that would eventually became New Jersey Offered religious freedom and a representative assembly

The Restoration Colonies (Part 2) Pennsylvania William Penn received the land grant as a repayment of debt. Settled by the Quakers -loving, Christians Gender equality (egalitarian) Saw religious authority in each persons soul. Holy Experiment 1. Religious refuge for all 2. Liberal ideas in government 3. Generate income and profits Frame of Government guaranteed a representative assembly. Charter of Liberties [written Constitution] allowed freedom of worship and unrestricted immigration. Georgia

Delaware William Penn gave the lower three counties of Pennsylvania a separate assembly. created a separate colony Reasons for creating this new colony: 1. Create a buffer zone to protect South Carolina from Spanish Florida 2. London philanthropists wanted to remove debtors from crowded jails and give them a chance to start over. James Oglethorpe (governor) Ban on drinking rum Prohibition of slavery 20 years later: royal colony run by British System Smallest, poorest colony; adopted plantation system

Quiz Question 15 The colonies of Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Maryland had which of the following characteristics in common? a. They were founded by Quakers b. They were settled primarily by non-Englishmen c. They were settled by emigrants from other colonies d. They were founded as refuges from religious persecution in England e. They were strongly opposed to the institution of slavery Quiz Question 16 William Penn sought to do all of the following EXCEPT: a. Displace the savage Indians b. Provide a refuge to Quakers from England c. Establish a model society based upon reform

d. Generated rental revenue for himself e. Purchase land from the Indians Quiz Question 17 A religious dissenter would have been least tolerated in: a. Rhode Island b. Maryland c. New Netherlands d. New Sweden e. Massachusetts Bay Label the Restoration Colonies NEW YORK NEW JERSEY PENNSYLVANIA DELAWARE NORTH CAROLINA

SOUTH CAROLINA GEORGIA Identify the different regions Mercantilism & the Empire Mercantilism PROS New England shipbuilding prospered. Chesapeake tobacco had a monopoly in England. English military protected colonies from French/Spanish attacks. CONS Limited manufacturing

Chesapeake received low prices for raw goods Colonists were forced to pay high prices for English manufactured goods. resentment, defiance, lax enforcement, MA charter revoked. Colony w Ra rials te ma Raw materials m Raw at

er ial s The main purpose of colonies was to make the parent country rich. Trade + wealth + colonies = military & political strength The parent government regulated trade and production to help become wealthier. Parent Country $$ profit $$ Colony Colony Navigation and Trade Acts (1650-1673)

ESTABLISHED MERCANTILISM IN THE AMERICAN COLONIES. 3 rules for colonial trade: 1. Trade to/from colonies must use English/colonial ships & crews 2. All imports must pass through England. 3. Tobacco (etc) could only be exported to England. Dominion of New England James II wanted to increase royal control over the colonies by combining them and eliminating representative assemblies. New York + New Jersey + New England = Dominion of New England (Governed by Sir Edmund Andros) Glorious Revolution deposed James II; colonies returned to separate charters. RESTRICTIONS ON COLONIAL TRADE CONTINUED AND WERE WIDELY RESENTED. Quiz Question 18 The primary purpose of the Navigation Acts of the 1660s was to: a. Stimulate trade b. Encourage the colonies to conduct business with other

countries than England c. Regulate trade within the empire d. Forbade colonial to engage in Englands monopoly of munitions trade e. Regulate the amount of cotton to be exported to Europe Quiz Question 19 The theory that nations should increase their wealth, as measured in gold and silver and ensure that they sell more than they import is known as a. imperialism b. Laissez-faire c. democracy d. monetarism e. mercantilism The Institution of Slavery

Reasons for the Increased Demand for Slavery 1. Reduced migration Wages in England, so fewer immigrated. 2. Slavery provided a stable workforce (as opposed to indentured servitudeBacons Rebellion) 3. Slavery provided a cheap labor force Rice & indigo (tobacco $ ) were profitable. Laws regarding Slavery Whites regarded blacks as social inferiors. 1641 (MA) lawful captives 1661 (VA): children inherited a mothers slave status 1664 (MD): baptism didnt affect a slaves status; white women couldnt marry African American men. Triangular Trade

Quiz Question 20 Africa exported ____________ as part of the triangular trade system: a. slaves b. rum c. tobacco d. Woolen clothes e. Gold, diamonds, and silver England Plants the Jamestown Seedling p. 30 (28 new [blue/red] book) 1. What were the motives of those who set out for Jamestown? 2. How did colonists view England? 3. What was the greatest obstacle that the settlers at Jamestown faced? 4. Who was John Smith and what is his historical significance? Cultural Clashes in the Chesapeake p. 32 5. What caused both the First and Second Anglo-Powhatan Wars? 6. What was the ultimate result of these wars? Virginia: Child of Tobacco p. 35

7. What does it mean to say that the European demand for tobacco was nearly insatiable? 8. Name at least two effects the cultivation of tobacco had on Jamestown? The Plantation Colonies p. 41 9. What did the Southern Colonies have in common? Building the Bay Colony p. 50 10. What was the purpose of the government in Massachusetts Bay? 11. What were religious leaders not allowed to do? Why is this significant? Penns Holy Experiment in Pennsylvania p. 60 12. What practices or values made Pennsylvania such a unique colony? 13. How did Pennsylvania attract immigrants? England Plants the Jamestown Seedling p. 30 1. What were the motives of those who set out for Jamestown? 2. How did colonists view England? 3. What was the greatest obstacle that the settlers at Jamestown faced? 4. Who was John Smith and what is his historical significance? Cultural Clashes in the Chesapeake p. 32

5. What caused both the First and Second Anglo-Powhatan Wars? 6. What was the ultimate result of these wars? Virginia: Child of Tobacco p. 35 7. What does it mean to say that the European demand for tobacco was nearly insatiable? 8. Name at least two effects the cultivation of tobacco had on Jamestown? The Plantation Colonies p. 41 9. What did the Southern Colonies have in common? The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism p. 46 10. What are Protestants opposed to? Why?

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