Chapter 2

Chapter 2

Chapter 4 MARIE: An Introduction to a Simple Computer 4.2 CPU Basics The computers CPU fetches, decodes, and executes program instructions. The two principal parts of the CPU are the datapath and the control unit. The datapath consists of an arithmetic-logic unit and storage units (registers) that are interconnected by a data bus that is also connected to main memory.

Various CPU components perform sequenced operations according to signals provided by its control unit. 2 4.2 CPU Basics Registers hold data that can be readily accessed by the CPU. They can be implemented using D flip-flops. A 32-bit register requires 32 D flip-flops. The arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) carries out logical and arithmetic operations as directed by the control unit.

The control unit determines which actions to carry out according to the values in a program counter register and a status register. 3 4.3 The Bus Buses consist of data lines, control lines, and address lines. While the data lines convey bits from one device to another, control lines determine the direction of data flow, and when each device can access the bus. Address lines determine the location of the source

or destination of the data. The next slide shows a model bus configuration. 4 4.3 The Bus 5 4.3 The Bus In a master-slave configuration, where more than one device can be the bus master, concurrent bus master requests must be arbitrated.

Four categories of bus arbitration are: Distributed using self-detection: Daisy chain: Permissions Devices decide which gets the bus are passed from the highestamong themselves. priority device to the lowest. Centralized parallel: Each Distributed using collisiondetection: Any device can try to device is directly connected use the bus. If its data collides with to an arbitration circuit. the data of another device, it tries again. 6

4.4 Clocks Every computer contains at least one clock that synchronizes the activities of its components. A fixed number of clock cycles are required to carry out each data movement or computational operation. The clock frequency, measured in megahertz or gigahertz, determines the speed with which all operations are carried out. Clock cycle time is the reciprocal of clock frequency. An 800 MHz clock has a cycle time of 1.25 ns. 7

4.4 Clocks Clock speed should not be confused with CPU performance. The CPU time required to run a program is given by the general performance equation: We see that we can improve CPU throughput when we reduce the number of instructions in a program, reduce the number of cycles per instruction, or reduce the number of nanoseconds per clock cycle. We will return to this important equation in later chapters. 8

4.5 The Input/Output Subsystem A computer communicates with the outside world through its input/output (I/O) subsystem. I/O devices connect to the CPU through various interfaces. I/O can be memory-mapped-- where the I/O device behaves like main memory from the CPUs point of view. Or I/O can be instruction-based, where the CPU has a specialized I/O instruction set. We study I/O in detail in chapter 7. 9

4.6 Memory Organization Computer memory consists of a linear array of addressable storage cells that are similar to registers. Memory can be byte-addressable, or wordaddressable, where a word typically consists of two or more bytes. Memory is constructed of RAM chips, often referred to in terms of length width. If the memory word size of the machine is 16 bits, then a 4M 16 RAM chip gives us 4 megabytes of 16-bit memory locations. 10 4.6 Memory Organization

How does the computer access a memory location corresponds to a particular address? We observe that 4M can be expressed as 2 2 2 20 = 2 22 words. The memory locations for this memory are numbered 0 through 2 22 -1. Thus, the memory bus of this system requires at least 22 address lines. The address lines count from 0 to 222 - 1 in binary. Each line is either on or off indicating the location of the desired memory element. 11

4.6 Memory Organization Physical memory usually consists of more than one RAM chip. Access is more efficient when memory is organized into banks of chips with the addresses interleaved across the chips With low-order interleaving, the low order bits of the address specify which memory bank contains the address of interest. Accordingly, in high-order interleaving, the high order address bits specify the memory bank. The next slide illustrates these two ideas. 12

4.6 Memory Organization Low-Order Interleaving High-Order Interleaving 13 4.7 Interrupts The normal execution of a program is altered when an event of higher-priority occurs. The CPU is alerted to such an event through an interrupt.

Interrupts can be triggered by I/O requests, arithmetic errors (such as division by zero), or when an invalid instruction is encountered. Each interrupt is associated with a procedure that directs the actions of the CPU when an interrupt occurs. Nonmaskable interrupts are high-priority interrupts that cannot be ignored. 14 4.8 MARIE We can now bring together many of the ideas that we have discussed to this point using a very simple

model computer. Our model computer, the Machine Architecture that is Really Intuitive and Easy, MARIE, was designed for the singular purpose of illustrating basic computer system concepts. While this system is too simple to do anything useful in the real world, a deep understanding of its functions will enable you to comprehend system architectures that are much more complex. 15 4.8 MARIE The MARIE architecture has the following

characteristics: Binary, two's complement data representation. Stored program, fixed word length data and instructions. 4K words of word-addressable main memory. 16-bit data words. 16-bit instructions, 4 for the opcode and 12 for the address. A 16-bit arithmetic logic unit (ALU). Seven registers for control and data movement. 16 4.8 MARIE

MARIEs seven registers are: Accumulator, AC, a 16-bit register that holds a conditional operator (e.g., "less than") or one operand of a two-operand instruction. Memory address register, MAR, a 12-bit register that holds the memory address of an instruction or the operand of an instruction. Memory buffer register, MBR, a 16-bit register that holds the data after its retrieval from, or before its placement in memory. 17 4.8 MARIE

MARIEs seven registers are: Program counter, PC, a 12-bit register that holds the address of the next program instruction to be executed. Instruction register, IR, which holds an instruction immediately preceding its execution. Input register, InREG, an 8-bit register that holds data read from an input device. Output register, OutREG, an 8-bit register, that holds data that is ready for the output device. 18 4.8 MARIE

This is the MARIE architecture shown graphically. 19 4.8 MARIE This is the MARIE data path shown graphically. 20 4.8 MARIE A computers instruction set architecture (ISA)

specifies the format of its instructions and the primitive operations that the machine can perform. The ISA is an interface between a computers hardware and its software. Some ISAs include hundreds of different instructions for processing data and controlling program execution. The MARIE ISA consists of only thirteen instructions. 21 4.8 MARIE This is the format

of a MARIE instruction: The fundamental MARIE instructions are: 22 4.8 MARIE This is a bit pattern for a LOAD instruction as it would appear in the IR: We see that the opcode is 1 and the address from which to load the data is 3. 23

4.8 MARIE This is a bit pattern for a SKIPCOND instruction as it would appear in the IR: We see that the opcode is 8 and bits 11 and 10 are 10, meaning that the next instruction will be skipped if the value in the AC is greater than zero. What is the hexadecimal representation of this instruction? 24 4.8 MARIE Each of our instructions actually consists of a

sequence of smaller instructions called microoperations. The exact sequence of microoperations that are carried out by an instruction can be specified using register transfer language (RTL). In the MARIE RTL, we use the notation M[X] to indicate the actual data value stored in memory location X, and to indicate the transfer of bytes to a register or memory location. 25 4.8 MARIE The RTL for the LOAD instruction is:

MAR X MBR M[MAR] AC MBR Similarly, the RTL for the ADD instruction is: MAR X MBR M[MAR] AC AC + MBR 26 4.8 MARIE Recall that SKIPCOND skips the next instruction

according to the value of the AC. The RTL for the this instruction is the most complex in our instruction set: If IR[11 - 10] = 00 If AC < 0 then else If IR[11 - 10] If AC = 0 then else If IR[11 - 10] If AC > 0 then then PC = 01

PC = 11 PC PC + 1 then PC + 1 then PC + 1 27 4.9 Instruction Processing The fetch-decode-execute cycle is the series of steps

that a computer carries out when it runs a program. We first have to fetch an instruction from memory, and place it into the IR. Once in the IR, it is decoded to determine what needs to be done next. If a memory value (operand) is involved in the operation, it is retrieved and placed into the MBR. With everything in place, the instruction is executed. The next slide shows a flowchart of this process. 28 4.9 Instruction Processing

29 4.9 Instruction Processing All computers provide a way of interrupting the fetch-decode-execute cycle. Interrupts occur when: A user break (e.,g., Control+C) is issued I/O is requested by the user or a program A critical error occurs Interrupts can be caused by hardware or software. Software interrupts are also called traps.

30 4.9 Instruction Processing Interrupt processing involves adding another step to the fetch-decode-execute cycle as shown below. The next slide shows a flowchart of Process the interrupt. 31 4.9 Instruction Processing 32

4.9 Instruction Processing For general-purpose systems, it is common to disable all interrupts during the time in which an interrupt is being processed. Typically, this is achieved by setting a bit in the flags register. Interrupts that are ignored in this case are called maskable. Nonmaskable interrupts are those interrupts that must be processed in order to keep the system in a stable condition.

33 4.9 Instruction Processing Interrupts are very useful in processing I/O. However, interrupt-driven I/O is complicated, and is beyond the scope of our present discussion. We will look into this idea in greater detail in Chapter 7. MARIE, being the simplest of simple systems, uses a modified form of programmed I/O. All output is placed in an output register, OutREG, and the CPU polls the input register, InREG, until input is sensed, at which time the value is copied

into the accumulator. 34 4.10 A Simple Program Consider the simple MARIE program given below. We show a set of mnemonic instructions stored at addresses 100 - 106 (hex): 35 4.10 A Simple Program Lets look at what happens inside the computer when our program runs.

This is the LOAD 104 instruction: 36 4.10 A Simple Program Our second instruction is ADD 105: 37 4.11 A Discussion on Assemblers Mnemonic instructions, such as LOAD 104, are easy for humans to write and understand. They are impossible for computers to understand.

Assemblers translate instructions that are comprehensible to humans into the machine language that is comprehensible to computers We note the distinction between an assembler and a compiler: In assembly language, there is a one-to-one correspondence between a mnemonic instruction and its machine code. With compilers, this is not usually the case. 38 4.11 A Discussion on Assemblers Assemblers create an object program file from mnemonic source code in two passes. During the first pass, the assembler assembles as

much of the program is it can, while it builds a symbol table that contains memory references for all symbols in the program. During the second pass, the instructions are completed using the values from the symbol table. 39 4.11 A Discussion on Assemblers Consider our example program (top). Note that we have included two directives HEX and DEC that

specify the radix of the constants. During the first pass, we have a symbol table and the partial instructions shown at the bottom. 40 4.11 A Discussion on Assemblers After the second pass, the assembly is complete.

41 4.12 Extending Our Instruction Set So far, all of the MARIE instructions that we have discussed use a direct addressing mode. This means that the address of the operand is explicitly stated in the instruction. It is often useful to employ a indirect addressing, where the address of the address of the operand is given in the instruction. If you have ever used pointers in a program, you are already familiar with indirect addressing.

42 4.12 Extending Our Instruction Set To help you see what happens at the machine level, we have included an indirect addressing mode instruction to the MARIE instruction set. The ADDI instruction specifies the address of the address of the operand. The following RTL tells us what is happening at the register level: MAR X MBR M[MAR] MAR MBR MBR M[MAR]

AC AC + MBR 43 4.12 Extending Our Instruction Set Another helpful programming tool is the use of subroutines. The jump-and-store instruction, JNS, gives us limited subroutine functionality. The details of the JNS instruction are given by the following RTL: MBR PC MAR X M[MAR] MBR MBR X

AC 1 AC AC + MBR AC PC Does JNS permit recursive calls? 44 4.12 Extending Our Instruction Set Our last helpful instruction is the CLEAR instruction. All it does is set the contents of the accumulator to all zeroes.

This is the RTL for CLEAR: AC 0 We put our new instructions to work in the program on the following slide. 45 4.12 Extending Our Instruction Set 100 101 102 103 104

105 106 107 108 109 10A 10B 10C 10D | | |

| | |Loop | | | | | | | | LOAD Addr


10E 10F 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119

11A 11B | | | |Addr |Next |Num |Sum |Ctr |One |

| | | | SKIPCOND 000 JUMP Loop HALT HEX 118 HEX 0 DEC 5 DEC 0 HEX 0

DEC 1 DEC 10 DEC 15 DEC 2 DEC 25 DEC 30 46 4.13 A Discussion on Decoding A computers control unit keeps things synchronized, making sure that bits flow to the correct components as the components are needed.

There are two general ways in which a control unit can be implemented: hardwired control and microprogrammed control. With microprogrammed control, a small program is placed into read-only memory in the microcontroller. Hardwired controllers implement this program using digital logic components. 47 4.13 A Discussion on Decoding Your text provides a complete list of the register transfer language for each of MARIEs instructions.

The microoperations given by each RTL define the operation of MARIEs control unit. Each microoperation consists of a distinctive signal pattern that is interpreted by the control unit and results in the execution of an instruction. Recall, the RTL for the Add instruction is: MAR X MBR M[MAR] AC AC + MBR 48 4.13 A Discussion on Decoding Each of MARIEs

registers and main memory have a unique address along the datapath. The addresses take the form of signals issued by the control unit. How many signal lines does MARIEs control unit need? 49 4.13 A Discussion on Decoding Let us define two sets of

three signals. One set, P0, P1, P2, controls reading from memory or a register, and the other set consisting of P3, P4, P5, controls writing to memory or a register. The next slide shows a close up view of MARIEs MBR. 50 4.13 A Discussion on Decoding

This register is enabled for reading when P0 and P1 are high, and it is enabled for writing when P3 and P4 are high 51 4.13 A Discussion on Decoding Careful inspection of MARIEs RTL reveals that the ALU has only three operations: add, subtract, and clear. We will also define a fourth do nothing state. The entire set of MARIEs control signals consists of:

Register controls: P0 through P5. ALU controls: A0 through A3 Timing: T0 through T7 and counter reset Cr 52 4.13 A Discussion on Decoding Consider MARIEs Add instruction. Its RTL is: MAR X MBR M[MAR] AC AC + MBR After an Add instruction is fetched, the address, X, is

in the rightmost 12 bits of the IR, which has a datapath address of 7. X is copied to the MAR, which has a datapath address of 1. Thus we need to raise signals P 2, P1, and P0 to read from the IR, and signal P3 to write to the MAR. 53 4.13 A Discussion on Decoding Here is the complete signal sequence for MARIEs Add instruction: A0

P0 P1 P2 P3 T0: P0 P2 T1: P0 P1 P2 P5 T2: Cr T3: MAR X MBR M[MAR] AC AC + MBR [Reset counter] These signals are ANDed with combinational logic to bring about the desired machine behavior.

The next slide shows the timing diagram for this instruction.. 54 4.13 Decoding Notice the concurrent signal states during each machine cycle: C0 through C 3. P0 P1 P2 P3 T0: MAR X P0 P2 T1: MBR M[MAR] A0 P0 P1 P2 P5 T2: AC AC + MBR Cr T3: [Reset counter]

55 4.13 A Discussion on Decoding We note that the signal pattern just described is the same whether our machine used hardwired or microprogrammed control. In microprogrammed control, the bit pattern of an instruction feeds

directly into the combinational logic within the control unit. 56 4.13 A Discussion on Decoding This is the hardwired logic for MARIEs Add = 0011 instruction.

57 4.13 A Discussion on Decoding In microprogrammed control, instruction microcode produces control signal changes. Machine instructions are the input for a microprogram that converts the 1s and 0s of an instruction into control signals. The microprogram is stored in firmware, which is also called the control store. A microcode instruction is retrieved during each clock cycle.

58 4.13 A Discussion on Decoding This is how a generic microprogrammed control unit might look. 59 4.13 A Discussion on Decoding If MARIE were microprogrammed, the microinstruction format might look like this:

MicroOp1 and MicroOp2 contain binary codes for each instruction. Jump is a single bit indicating that the value in the Dest field is a valid address and should be placed in the microsequencer. 60 4.13 A Discussion on Decoding The table below contains MARIEs microoperation codes along with the corresponding RTL: 61

4.13 A Discussion on Decoding The first nine lines of MARIEs microprogram are given below (using RTL for clarity): 62 4.13 A Discussion on Decoding The first four lines are the fetch-decode-execute cycle. The remaining lines are the beginning of a jump table. 63 4.13 A Discussion on Decoding

Its important to remember that a microprogrammed control unit works like a system-in-miniature. Microinstructions are fetched, decoded, and executed in the same manner as regular instructions. This extra level of instruction interpretation is what makes microprogrammed control slower than hardwired control. The advantages of microprogrammed control are that it can support very complcated instructions and only the microprogram needs to be changed if the instruction set changes (or an error is found). 64

4.14 Real World Architectures MARIE shares many features with modern architectures but it is not an accurate depiction of them. In the following slides, we briefly examine two machine architectures. We will look at an Intel architecture, which is a CISC machine and MIPS, which is a RISC machine. CISC is an acronym for complex instruction set computer. RISC stands for reduced instruction set computer. We delve into the RISC versus CISC argument in Chapter 9. 65

4.14 Real World Architectures MARIE shares many features with modern architectures but it is not an accurate depiction of them. In the following slides, we briefly examine two machine architectures. We will look at an Intel architecture, which is a CISC machine and MIPS, which is a RISC machine. CISC is an acronym for complex instruction set computer. RISC stands for reduced instruction set computer. 66

4.14 Real World Architectures The classic Intel architecture, the 8086, was born in 1979. It is a CISC architecture. It was adopted by IBM for its famed PC, which was released in 1981. The 8086 operated on 16-bit data words and supported 20-bit memory addresses. Later, to lower costs, the 8-bit 8088 was introduced. Like the 8086, it used 20-bit memory addresses. What was the largest memory that the 8086 could address? 67

4.14 Real World Architectures The 8086 had four 16-bit general-purpose registers that could be accessed by the half-word. It also had a flags register, an instruction register, and a stack accessed through the values in two other registers, the base pointer and the stack pointer. The 8086 had no built in floating-point processing. In 1980, Intel released the 8087 numeric coprocessor, but few users elected to install them because of their cost. 68

4.14 Real World Architectures In 1985, Intel introduced the 32-bit 80386. It also had no built-in floating-point unit. The 80486, introduced in 1989, was an 80386 that had built-in floating-point processing and cache memory. The 80386 and 80486 offered downward compatibility with the 8086 and 8088. Software written for the smaller word systems was directed to use the lower 16 bits of the 32-bit registers. 69

4.14 Real World Architectures Currently, Intels most advanced 32-bit microprocessor is the Pentium 4. It can run as fast as 3.8 GHz. This clock rate is nearly 800 times faster than the 4.77 MHz of the 8086. Speed enhancing features include multilevel cache and instruction pipelining. Intel, along with many others, is marrying many of the ideas of RISC architectures with microprocessors that are largely CISC. 70

4.14 Real World Architectures The MIPS family of CPUs has been one of the most successful in its class. In 1986 the first MIPS CPU was announced. It had a 32-bit word size and could address 4GB of memory. Over the years, MIPS processors have been used in general purpose computers as well as in games. The MIPS architecture now offers 32- and 64-bit versions. 71

4.14 Real World Architectures MIPS was one of the first RISC microprocessors. The original MIPS architecture had only 55 different instructions, as compared with the 8086 which had over 100. MIPS was designed with performance in mind: It is a load/store architecture, meaning that only the load and store instructions can access memory. The large number of registers in the MIPS architecture keeps bus traffic to a minimum. How does this design affect performance? 72

Chapter 4 Conclusion The major components of a computer system are its control unit, registers, memory, ALU, and data path. A built-in clock keeps everything synchronized. Control units can be microprogrammed or hardwired. Hardwired control units give better performance, while microprogrammed units are more adaptable to changes. 73 Chapter 4 Conclusion

Computers run programs through iterative fetchdecode-execute cycles. Computers can run programs that are in machine language. An assembler converts mnemonic code to machine language. The Intel architecture is an example of a CISC architecture; MIPS is an example of a RISC architecture. 74 End of Chapter 4 75

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