Chapter 19, "World War I and Its Aftermath"

Chapter 19, "World War I and Its Aftermath"

Chapter 19, World War I and Its Aftermath 19.1- The United States Enters World War I II. The Outbreak of World War I A. Alliance System -Alliance formed between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy (Triple Alliance) = Central Powers -Alliance formed between Britain, France and Russia (Triple Entente) = Allied Powers B. Nationalism

-Nationalism-an intense feeling of pride in ones homeland -this feeling of pride was a powerful idea in Europe, as the nation-states competed for resources and superiority Note: Germany is now unified, Italy is now unified (something they had never been in modern era), and sought Naval and economic dominance in Europe and in the world. (By 1914, Germany led the world in steel production!) Militarism nations were arming themselves to the teeth! C. The Balkan Crisis -one of the basic ideas of nationalism is the right to

self-determination people who belong to a nation have the right to govern themselves -a region in southeastern Europe known as the Balkans, was a hot bed of nationalities (i.e. Croats, Serbs, Bosnians, Slovenes, Bohemians) -and I havent even mentioned the different religions in this region (Roman Catholic, Protestant, Greek Orthodox, Judaism, Eastern Orthodox) -Serbs really pushed for it. Serbia -Russia supported the Serbs -Austria-Hungary limited Serbias growth and freedom

-All that was needed was a SPARK!!! D. A Continent Goes to War Archduke Franz Ferdinand his wife Sophie visited the Serbian capital of Sarajevo and paraded around in an open car **A young Serbian nationalist named Gavrilo Princip (member of Black Hand Society) assassinated the Archduke and his wife. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia Germany promised to support Austria-Hungary if war broke out Russia mobilizes troops to support Serbia.Germany declares war on Russia and France!

**THE GREAT WAR BEGINS** E. Germanys Plan Fails (Schlieffen Plan) -Planned a Hammer and Anvil Tactic -Knock out France quick to deal w/ Russia -Belgium held up Germany just long enough for France and Russia to mobilize (4 weeks) -Britain declared war on Germany The Great War (WWI) (1914-1918) III. American Neutrality

President Wilson declared American neutrality American immigrants divided.why? Most Americans ended up supporting the Allied Powerswhy? The government elite throw FULL support with British and the Allied Powerswhy might this not be a surprise? (Guess Wilsons ethnic origin) propaganda wide use of propaganda techniques to foment hatred towards the Germans was used to curry favor Wilson was unwilling to go to war yet. May 7th, 1915-Germany sinks the Lusitania off the coast of Ireland

128 Americans are killed (1,200 total) Wilson finds a middle course-threatens war if submarine warfare not restricted (Germans were sinking anything in the water) Sussex Pledge- Germany agreed to sink no more merchant ships w/out warning He was re-elected in 1916 on the campaign slogan of He Kept us Out of War What finally got us to declare war??? -Zimmerman Telegram British intelligence intercepted a cable from Germany to Mexico it was trying to get Mexico

to attack the U.S. and re-claim Texas, California, Arizona, etc. if the Central Powers won. As a result: - Wilson ASKS for a declaration of war on Germany Why? -April 6th, 1917-U.S. declares war on Germany! Review Questions/Assignment 1. What were the causes of World War I ? -Nationalism -Imperialism

-Militarism -Alliance System -Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand (Spark) 2. What was the problem in the Balkans? 3. Why were Americans divided over who to support in the war? Why did we ultimately side with the Allied Powers? 4. What is credited with starting World War I? 5. What finally got the United States to declare war on Germany? Assignment: p. 583, Do # 2, Pancho Villa. Do # 8 Expository Writing assignment about American actions in Mexico. Include reasons from the text to

back up your statements. Section 2- The Home Front I. Building Up the Military A. Selective Service -Selective Service Act of 1917- all men ages 21-30 must register for the draft B. African Americans -only 42, 000 served overseas as combat troops -French praised them for their distinction in combat -segregated units

C. Women in the Military -First war in which women served in armed forces -Navy enlisted women as yeomans -Women also served as nurses, clerical workers, radio operators, electricians, pharmacists, photographers, and torpedo assemblers D. Selling the War -Committee on Public Information formed

-responsible for selling the war to the American people -used newspapers, advertisers, authors, artists, songwriters, hollywood executives, entertainers, etc. to help promote victory over there! -Liberty Bonds/Victory Bonds -Where did people get a lot of their information since they didnt have television, and radio use was

restricted during the war? v=wbggEGUaE28 Assignment: p. 589, Do #s 1-5. Please Note: Pay close attention to #4 How did government efforts to ensure support for the war conflict with democratic ideals? (Do you agree with the Federal Governments efforts at mobilizing support by making it illegal to speak out against the government at all? Is this Constitutional? Was the Supreme Court correct in its ruling? Make sure to read this carefully).

Section 3, A Bloody Conflict A. Trench Warfare- Problems facing American Expeditionary Force B. New Technology -automatic machine guns -massive artillery barrages (set up 10km behind front line) -airplanes (first used for scouting/equipped later with machine guns/dropping bombs) -chemical weapons (chlorine/mustard gas) -Tanks (slow and cumbersome/easily destroyed)

American Heroes of World War I *Alvin York was the most famous WWI veteran. *Single-handedly killed between 9-25 Germans. *Captured a machine gun and took over 132 prisoner. Eddie Rickenbacker *Eddie Rickenbacker was Americas successful fighter pilot. *Had 26 confirmed kills.

I. Victory A. Winning the War at Sea -American Admiral William Sims suggests ships travel in convoys ships that travel in groups -very successful against German U-boats B. Russia Leaves the War -Riots break out in Russia in March of 1917 -Czar Nicholas II abdicates throne; Temporary govt. takes over, but elect to

keep fighting in WWI -Food and fuel shortages continue -Bolshevik Revolution = known as Red October in 1917 = radical socialists overthrow government and establish a communist state -Led by Vladimir Lenin -Takes Russia out of WWI by signing Treaty of Brest-Litovsk -As a result, the Germans focus on the Western Front and push within 40 miles of Paris! C. The Battle of the Argonne Forest -Sep. 1918-General Pershing sent over 600,000 American doughboys along

with artillery and supplies for the most massive attack in American history -slowly one German position fell at a time -Austria-Hungary surrenders because of a revolution -Ottoman Empire (Turkey) surrenders -revolution in Berlin.low food and supplies.Germans finally give up -German Empire - At the 11th hour, on the 11th day of the 11th month, 1918, the fighting stopped. Germany signed an armistice or ceasefire that ended the fighting

II. A Flawed Peace -Wilson presented plan for peace, known as Wilsons Fourteen Points *The 14th Point, (most important) suggested setting up a League of Nations in order to prevent future wars by protecting territories and political independence. *Europeans did not like Wilsons tone.thought he was preaching to them A. Treaty of Versailles *Europeans actually liked the idea of a League of Nations *But they believed that Wilson was too lenient on the Central Powers *France, Britain, and Italy wanted a HARSH treatment of Germany *Germany was forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles:

-forced to pay reparations to the Allied Powers (33 billion) -had to disarm military; could not rebuild military w/out permission -forced to give up all territories -forced to accept all blame and guilt for the war Important to Note: There was never a FORMAL SURRENDER of Germany after WWI.why do you think this might be significant? B. The U.S. rejects the Treaty of Versailles -The U.S. Senate rejected the Treaty -Feared it might entangle the U.S. into foreign alliances -Wilson travelled all over the country touting the United States to agree to

sign the Treaty and support the League of Nations -Senate said NO -Wilson collapses as a result of exhausting travelling; had a stroke; leaves office in 1921; Harding (R) elected President TRICK TRIVIA QUESTION: Who was considered the first female President? Edith Wilson! She managed her husbands schedule and only allowed him to speak to certain people in the Cabinet. Assignment: On p. 597, only do #7. Write five questions. Section 4- The Wars Impact

-Rationing during the war led to a rush on products -Inflation on the prices of food, clothing, shelter and other essentials -Workers striking and demanding to keep wages/benefits earned during the War *The Boston Police Strike (1919) -75% of police force strike -Riots and looting erupted throughout the city -Governor Calvin Coolidge was sent in the National Guard to quell the riots and maintain order -Coolidge agreed the striking police officers should be fired and new force hired -Coolidge gains national attention and the Republicans nominate him for Vice-Pres. in 1920.

II. An End to Progressivism -Americans disillusioned with world and progressivism -Warren G. Harding runs on a platform of returning America to a sense of normalcy. (He made up that word-poor grammar) -Return to simpler ways before progressive era reforms -Harding and Coolidge win by a landslide over Democrats in 1920 -Usher in the era of the Jazz Age and the 1920s economic BOOM! (Whoowhee!) Assignment: p. 603, do #s 1-5 and 7 only.

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