Chapter 18: Classification - Council Rock School District
PLEASE DO THIS!! Take off your left shoe and place it on my desk in the front Chapter 18: Classification Classification is the method of logically grouping organisms based on some common characteristics Taxonomy does the actually grouping into the
groups called TAXON (s TAXA) with some kind of biological significance. EX: Things that fly, swim, walk, have feathers, etc. How many different terms can you think of for trying to tell someone something is really good? WRITE EM DOWN! PROCESS BOX Take a look at the master list on the board. Why might this cause problems for someone who is not from this region? Who is not a native
English speaker? Give an example. WRITE AT LEAST 3 LINES There is a need for a common term to describe an individual organism so that all people understand when the term is used. Carolus Linnaeus came up with the system of Binomial Nomenclature. Carolus Linnaeus He assigned two Latin names to each different species of organisms. This is their Scientific name.
Homo sapiens (human) Homo sapiens Ursus maritimus (polar bear) Ursus maritimus Alba rubrum (red oak) Ursus arctos (grizzly bear) ORGANISM Felis domesticu s Canis familiaris
Haliaeetus leucocephalus Danaus plexippus English Cat Dog Eagle
Butterfly Spanish Gato Perro guila Mariposa French
Chat Chienne L'aigle Papillion German Katze Hund
Adler Schmetterling Picture How to write the name Genus name first Always CAPITALIZED Species name second Never capitalized
Can either be Italicized Underlined Latin Names Scientific names will always be in Latin. Latin is a dead language that will not evolve unlike other languages. Little chance of change through time. Universally understood in the science community
The Taxonomic order: From the biggest group to the smallest group or taxa Taxa Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus species
Human Cat Dog Animalia Animalia Animalia Chordata Chordata Chordata Mammalia Mammalia Mammalia Primate Carnivora
Carnivora Hominoidae Felidae Canidae Homo Felis Canis sapiens catus lupus Which two organisms are more closely related and why? PROCESS BOX
Look at the list of organism names on the board. Describe why Latin is better for scientific names. WRITE AT LEAST 2 LINES! DICHOTOMOUS KEY 1A: If orange, go to..2 1B: If not orange, go to ..4 2A: Has wings, it is .. Charizard 2B: Does not have wings, go to .3 3A: Teeth showing, it is ... Charmander 3B: Teeth not showing, it is Charmeleon 4A: Shell present, go to 5 4B: Shell absent, go to . 7
5A: Ears present, go to 6 5B: No ears, it is . Squirtle 6A: Guns on back, it is . Blastoise 6B: No guns on back, it is .. Wartortle 7A: Flower on back, go to 8 7B: No flower on back, it is .. Bulbasaur 8A: Rounded eye shape, it is Venusaur 8B: Triangular eye shape, it is . Ivysaur Venusaur Charizard Charmeleon
Blastoise Squirtle Wartortle Bulbasaur Charmander Ivysaur The Taxonomic order: DOMAIN
KINGDOM PHYLUM CLASS ORDER FAMILY GENUS SPECIES Dumpy Kings Play Cards On Fat Green Stools Modern methods of classification rely on evolutionary relationships in place of homologous structures.
Kingdoms and Domains 1700s Plants and Animals only Is this right? 1800s Protists, Plants and Animals Is this right? 1950s 5 Kingdom system, including Fungus and Monera Are we close now? Now 6 Kingdoms divided into 3 Domains This has to be it, yes?
Domain Bacteria 1. Characteristics of the Domain Unicellular, multicellular, or both? Prokaryotic or eukaryotic? Cell walls? IF so, material? _______________________
Kingdom: Eubacteria true bacteria The normal bacteria you think of Domain Archaea 1. Characteristics of the Domain Unicellular, multicellular, or both? Prokaryotic or eukaryotic? Cell walls?
IF so, material? _______________________ Kingdom: Archaebacteria
Ancient bacteria Live in areas with no oxygen, super hot temperatures, and high amounts of salt/acid Domain Eukarya 1. Characteristics of the Domain Prokaryotic or eukaryotic? Broken into 4 kingdoms
Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Domain Eukarya 1. Kingdom Protista Unicellular, multicellular, or both? Prokaryotic or eukaryotic? Autotroph, heterotroph, or both?
Cell walls? IF heterotroph, absorptive or ingestive? IF so, material? _______________________
Examples: amoeba, paramecium, volvox Domain Eukarya 1. Kingdom Fungi Unicellular, multicellular, or both? Prokaryotic or eukaryotic? Autotroph, heterotroph, or both? Cell walls?
IF heterotroph, absorptive or ingestive? IF so, material? _______________________ Examples: mushrooms, yeast, mold Domain Eukarya 1. Kingdom Plantae Unicellular, multicellular, or both?
Prokaryotic or eukaryotic? Autotroph, heterotroph, or both? Cell walls?
IF heterotroph, absorptive or ingestive? IF so, material? _______________________ Examples: mosses, conifers, flowers Domain Eukarya 1. Kingdom Animalia Unicellular, multicellular, or both? Prokaryotic or eukaryotic? Autotroph, heterotroph, or both?
Cell walls? IF heterotroph, absorptive or ingestive? IF so, material? _______________________ Examples: sponges, insects, cats,
humans Review Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Two prokaryotic kingdoms? Kingdom that lacks cell walls? Domain that includes us?
Kingdom that includes us? Protista examples? Fungi Cell Wall material? Only kingdom in domain Bacteria? Review Questions 1. Only domain for kingdom Archaebacteria? 2. Kingdom(s) that can be unicellular or multicellular 3. Eukaryotic kingdoms 4. Eukaryotic domain 5. Multicellular autotrophs 6. Kingdom: Includes amoeba
7. Domain: Includes E. coli Review Questions 1. Reject kindgom 2. Two kingdoms that are heterotrophic 3. Domain: Includes sponges, insects, fish 4. Kingdom that includes methanogens and halophiles 5. Prokaryotic kingdom that has cell walls NOT made of peptidoglycan
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