# Chapter 15 Chemical Equilibrium - Weebly

Lecture Presentation Unit 7 Day 1 Chemical Equilibrium James F. Kirby Quinnipiac University Hamden, CT Edited by M. Day 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Warm Up: The Concept of Equilibrium As a system approaches equilibrium, both

____________ are ___________. At equilibrium, the ____________________are proceeding ___________________. At equilibrium, the amount ________________ Equilibrium ______________________________. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Concept of Equilibrium As a system approaches equilibrium, both the forward and reverse reactions are occurring. At equilibrium, the forward and reverse reactions are proceeding at the same rate. At equilibrium, the amount of each reactant and product is constant. Equilibrium

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Agenda 15.1 Concept of Equilibrium 15.2 The Equilibrium Constant 15.3 and 15.4 Understanding & Working with Equilibrium Constants Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Concept of Equilibrium Chemical equilibrium occurs when a reaction and its reverse reaction proceed at the same rate. In the figure above, equilibrium is finally reached in the third picture.

Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Writing the Equation for an Equilibrium Reaction Since, in a system at equilibrium, both the forward and reverse reactions are being carried out, we write its equation with a double arrow: N2O4(g) 2 NO 2 NO2(g) Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Comparing Rates For the forward reaction N2O4(g) 2 NO2(g)

The rate law is Rate = kf [N2O4] For the reverse reaction 2 NO2(g) N2O4(g) The rate law is Rate = kr [NO2]2 Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Meaning of Equilibrium Therefore, at equilibrium Ratef = Rater kf[N2O4] = kr[NO2]2 Rewriting this, it becomes the expression for the equilibrium constant, Keq.

Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Another Equilibrium The Haber Process Consider the Haber Process, which is the industrial preparation of ammonia: N2(g) + 3 H2(g) 2 NO 2 NH3(g) The equilibrium constant depends on stoichiometry: Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Equilibrium Constant Consider the generalized reaction

a A + b B 2 NO d D + e E The equilibrium expression for this reaction would be Also, since pressure is proportional to concentration for gases in a closed system, the equilibrium expression can also be written Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. HA H+ + A [HA] = 1.65 102 M and + 4 [H ] = [A ] = 5.44 10 M at equilibrium. Kc = _______.

a. b. c. d. 1.79 102 1.79 103 1.79 104 1.79 105 Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. More with Gases and Equilibrium We can compare the equilibrium constant based on concentration to the one based on pressure.

For gases, PV = nRT (the Ideal Gas Law). Rearranging, P = (n/V)RT; (n/V) is [ ]. The result is Where Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. KP = KC when a. the reaction is at equilibrium. b. the reaction is exothermic. c. all of the gases present are at the same pressure. d. the number of moles of gas on both sides of the balanced equation is the same. Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

KP = KC when d. the number of moles of gas on both sides of the balanced equation is the same. WHY? Pressure is proportional to concentration for gases in a closed system. And, If the number of moles remains the same, RT is raised to the power of zero, making KP = KC 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Equilibrium Equilibrium Can Be Reached from Either Direction

As you can see, the ratio of [NO2]2 to [N2O4] remains constant at this temperature no matter what the initial concentrations of NO2 and N2O4 are. Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Magnitude of K If K>>1, the reaction favors products; products predominate at equilibrium. If K<<1, the reaction favors reactants; reactants predominate at equilibrium. Equilibrium

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. If the value of the equilibrium constant is large, then at equilibrium mostly _______ will be present. a. b. c. d. reactants products catalysts water Equilibrium

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Direction of the Chemical Equation and K The equilibrium constant of a reaction in the reverse reaction is the reciprocal of the equilibrium constant of the forward reaction: N2O4(g) 2 NO 2 NO2(g) 2 NO2(g) 2 NO N2O4(g) [NO2]2 Kc = = 0.212 at 100 C [N2O4] Kc = ?

Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Direction of the Chemical Equation and K The equilibrium constant of a reaction in the reverse reaction is the reciprocal of the equilibrium constant of the forward reaction: N2O4(g) 2 NO 2 NO2(g) [NO2]2 Kc = = 0.212 at 100 C [N2O4] 2 NO2(g) 2 NO N2O4(g)

[N2O4] Kc = = 4.72 at 100 C 2 [NO2] Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Stoichiometry and Equilibrium Constants N2O4(g) 2 NO 2 NO2(g) 2 N2O4(g) 2 NO 4 NO2(g) [NO2]2 Kc =

= 0.212 at 100 C [N2O4] [NO2]4 2 Kc = = (0.212) at 100 C 2 [N2O4] To find the new equilibrium constant of a reaction when the equation has been multiplied by a number, simply raise the original equilibrium constant to that power. Here, the stoichiometry is doubled; the constant is the squared!

Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Consecutive Equilibria When two consecutive equilibria occur, the equations can be added to give a single equilibrium. The equilibrium constant of the new reaction is the product of the two constants: K3 = K1 K2 Example 2 NOBr 2 NO 2 NO + Br2 K1 = 0.014 Br2 + Cl2 2 NO 2 BrCl K2 = 7.2

2 NOBr + Cl2 2 NO 2 NO + 2 BrCl K3 = K1 K2 = 0.014 7.2 = 0.10 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Equilibrium Consecutive Equilibria When two consecutive equilibria occur, the equations can be added to give a single equilibrium. The equilibrium constant of the new reaction is the product of the two constants: K3 = K1 K2 Example 2 NOBr 2 NO 2 NO + Br2 K1 = 0.014 Br2 + Cl2 2 NO 2 BrCl

K2 = 7.2 2 NOBr + Cl2 2 NO 2 NO + 2 BrCl K3 = K1 K2 = 0.014 7.2 = 0.10 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Equilibrium Homogeneous vs. Heterogeneous Homogeneous equilibria occur when all reactants and products are in the same phase. Heterogeneous equilibria occur when something in the equilibrium is in a different phase. The value used for the concentration of a

pure substance is always 1. Therefore, whenever a pure solid or pure liquid appears in an equilibrium reaction, its concentration is not included in the Equilibrium equilibrium expression. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Decomposition of CaCO3 A Heterogeneous Equilibrium The equation for the reaction is CaCO3(s) 2 NO CaO(s) + CO2(g) This results in Kc = ? and

Kp = ? Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Decomposition of CaCO3 A Heterogeneous Equilibrium The equation for the reaction is CaCO3(s) 2 NO CaO(s) + CO2(g) This results in Kc = [CO2] and Kp = PCO2 Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Deducing Equilibrium Concentrations 1) Tabulate all known initial and equilibrium concentrations. 2) For anything for which initial and equilibrium concentrations are known, calculate the change. 3) Use the balanced equation to find change for all other reactants and products. 4) Use initial concentrations and changes to find equilibrium concentration of all species. 5) Calculate the equilibrium constant using the equilibrium concentrations. Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. An Example

A closed system initially containing 1.000 103 M H2 and 2.000103 M I2 at 448 C is allowed to reach equilibrium. Analysis of the equilibrium mixture shows that the concentration of HI is 1.87 103 M. Calculate Kc at 448 C for the reaction taking place, which is H2(g) + I2(g) 2 NO 2 HI(g) Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. What Do We Know? Initially [H2], M

[I2], M [HI], M 1.000 103 2.000 103 0 Change At equilibrium 1.87 103 Equilibrium

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. [HI] Increases by 1.87 103 M Initially [H2], M [I2], M [HI], M 1.000 103 2.000 103 0

Change +1.87 103 At equilibrium 1.87 103 Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Stoichiometry tells us [H2] and [I2] decrease by half as much. [H2], M [I2], M

[HI], M Initially 1.000 103 2.000 103 0 Change 9.35 104 9.35 104

+1.87 103 At equilibrium 1.87 103 Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. We can now calculate the equilibrium concentrations of all three compounds. [H2], M [I2], M [HI], M

Initially 1.000 103 2.000 103 0 Change 9.35 104 9.35 104 +1.87 103 6.5 105

1.065 103 1.87 103 At equilibrium Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. And, therefore, the equilibrium constant [HI]2 Kc = [H2] [I2] (1.87 103)2 =

(6.5 105)(1.065 103) = 51 Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Warm Up Why is the equilibrium constant constant? Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Is a Mixture in Equilibrium? Which Way Does the Reaction Go? To answer these questions, we calculate the reaction quotient, Q. Q looks like the equilibrium constant, K,

but the values used to calculate it are the current conditions, not necessarily those for equilibrium. To calculate Q, one substitutes the initial concentrations of reactants and products into the equilibrium expression. Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Comparing Q and K Nature wants Q = K. If Q < K, nature will make the reaction proceed to products. If Q = K, the reaction is in equilibrium. If Q > K, nature will

make the reaction proceed to reactants. Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations If you know the equilibrium constant, you can find equilibrium concentrations from initial concentrations and changes (based on stoichiometry). You will set up a table similar to the ones used to find the equilibrium concentration, but the change in concentration row will simple be a factor of x based on the stoichiometry. Equilibrium

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. An Example A 1.000 L flask is filled with 1.000 mol of H2(g) and 2.000 mol of I2(g) at 448 C. Given a Kc of 50.5 at 448 C, what are the equilibrium concentrations of H2, I2, and HI? H2(g) + I2(g) 2 NO 2 HI(g) initial concentration (M) 1.000 2.000 0

change in concentration (M) x x +2x equilibrium concentration (M) 1.000 x 2.000 x 2x

Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Example (continued) Set up the equilibrium constant expression, filling in equilibrium concentrations from the table. Solving for x is done using the quadratic formula, resulting in x = 2.323 or 0.935. Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Example (completed) Since x must be subtracted from 1.000 M, 2.323 makes no physical sense. (It results

in a negative concentration!) The value must be 0.935. So [H2]eq = 1.000 0.935 = 0.065 M [I2]eq = 2.000 0.935 = 1.065 M [HI]eq = 2(0.935) = 1.87 M Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. LeChteliers Principle If a system at equilibrium is disturbed by a change in temperature, pressure, or the concentration of one of the components, the system will shift its equilibrium position so as to counteract the effect of the disturbance. Equilibrium

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Warm Up What three conditions did we manipulate in the lab that shifted the equilibrium of the five systems tested? Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. How Conditions Change Equilibrium We will use LeChteliers Principle qualitatively to predict shifts in equilibrium based on changes in conditions. Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

How Conditions Change Equilibrium We will use LeChteliers Principle qualitatively to predict shifts in equilibrium based on changes in conditions. Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Lab Report: Procedure, Data, Discussion of Theory A. HIn (aq) 2 NO H+ (aq) + ln-(aq) H+(aq) + OH-(aq) H2O(l) Procedure Observations Explanation

Initial color of water and bromothymol blue Solution is green The green color shows that the pH of distilled water is between 6 and 7.6, and the indicator is a mix of Hln and I- Add 0.1 M HCl Solution turned yellow pH < 6.0

Add 0.1 M NaOH Solution turned green and finally ended on blue, pH > 7.6 Additional drops of HCl and NaOH Solution changes from yellow (with HCl) to blue (with NaOH) 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Equilibrium

Lab Report: Procedure, Data, Discussion of Theory B. Cu2+(aq) + 4NH3 (aq) 2 NO [Cu(NH3)4]2+(aq) H+(aq) + NH3(aq) NH4+(aq) Procedure Observations Initial color of copper solution Solution is blue Add concentrated NH3 drops Solution turned light blue and solid formed;

with more NH3, solid dissolved and turned deep blue Add 1.0 M HCl Deep blue faded to lighter blue and solid formed again Additional drops of NH3 Solid dissolved again and solution turned deep blue 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Explanation Equilibrium Lab Report: Procedure, Data, Discussion of Theory C. [Co(H2O)6]2+(aq) + 4HCl (aq) + Heat 2 NO [CoCl4]2-(aq) + 6H2O(l) Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) AgCl(s) Procedure Observations Add 6.0 M HCl drops (tube A) Solution turned blue

Add 0.1 M AgNO3 drops (tube B) White solid precipitate and solution turned pink Add distilled water drops (tube C) Solution turned pink Add 5-6 grains CaCl2 to tube C Crystals dissolved and solution turned blue

Test tube C placed in ice water bath for 2-3 minutes Solution turned pink Test tube C placed in hot bath for 2-3 mins Solution turned blue 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Explanation Equilibrium

Lab Report: Procedure, Data, Discussion of Theory D. 2CO2 (g) + H2O (l) 2 NO CO2 (aq) + H+(aq) + HCO3-(aq) Procedure Observations Initial color of solution Green color = pH 4.4 Pull back on syringe to decrease pressure Solution turned teal, pH = 4.8 Push syringe to increase

pressure Solution turned green, pH = 4.4 Explanation Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. E. Mg(OH)2 (s) 2 NO Mg2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) H+(aq) + OH-(aq) H2O (l) Procedure Observations

Explanation Initial color of milk of magnesia and universal indicator Purple solution with white solid suspended in liquid White solid is undissolved Mg(OH)2. Purple color is from the universal indicator and shows that some of the OHions are present b/c purple = pH > 10 Add 1 drop of 3 M HCl with constant stirring

Solution immediately turned pink with more stirring pink color turned orange, green, then blue Additional drops of 3 M HCl Solution immediately turned pink; slower change to the blue-green end color Additional drops of HCl Solution immediately turned and NaOH pink; color remained pink and solution not cloudy

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Equilibrium Change in Reactant or Product Concentration If the system is in equilibrium adding a reaction component will result in some of it being used up. removing a reaction component will result in some if it being produced. Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Change in Volume or Pressure When gases are involved in an equilibrium, a change in pressure or volume will affect equilibrium: Higher volume or lower pressure favors the side of the equation with more moles (and vice-versa). Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Change in Temperature Is the reaction endothermic or exothermic as written? That matters! Endothermic: Heats acts like a reactant; adding heat drives a reaction toward products.

Exothermic: Heat acts like a product; adding heat drives a reaction toward reactants. Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. An Endothermic Equilibrium Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. An Exothermic Equilibrium The Haber Process for producing ammonia from the elements is exothermic. One would think that cooling down the reactants would result in more product. However, the activation energy for this

reaction is high! This is the one instance where a system in equilibrium can be affected by a catalyst! Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Catalysts Catalysts increase the rate of both the forward and reverse reactions. Equilibrium is achieved faster, but the equilibrium composition remains unaltered. Activation energy is lowered, allowing equilibrium to be established at lower temperatures. Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

END DAY 2 LECTURE Equilibrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

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