Chapter 11

Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Cell Communication PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Overview: The Cellular Internet Cell-to-cell communication is essential for multicellular organisms Biologists have discovered some universal mechanisms of cellular regulation The combined effects of multiple signals determine cell response For example, the dilation of blood vessels is

controlled by multiple molecules Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 11-1 Concept 11.1: External signals are converted to responses within the cell Microbes are a window on the role of cell signaling in the evolution of life Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Evolution of Cell Signaling A signal transduction pathway is a series of steps by which a signal on a cells surface is converted into a specific cellular response Signal transduction pathways convert signals on a cells surface into cellular responses Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Fig. 11-2 factor Receptor 1 Exchange of mating factors a a factor Yeast cell,

mating type a 2 Mating 3 New a/ cell Yeast cell, mating type a a/

Pathway similarities suggest that ancestral signaling molecules evolved in prokaryotes and were modified later in eukaryotes The concentration of signaling molecules allows bacteria to detect population density Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 11-3 1 Individual rodshaped cells 2 Aggregation in process 0.5 mm 3 Spore-forming structure (fruiting body)

Fruiting bodies Local and Long-Distance Signaling Cells in a multicellular organism communicate by chemical messengers Animal and plant cells have cell junctions that directly connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells In local signaling, animal cells may communicate by direct contact, or cell-cell recognition Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 11-4 Plasma membranes Gap junctions between animal cells (a) Cell junctions

(b) Cell-cell recognition Plasmodesmata between plant cells In many other cases, animal cells communicate using local regulators, messenger molecules that travel only short distances In long-distance signaling, plants and animals use chemicals called hormones Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 11-5 Long-distance signaling Local signaling Electrical signal

along nerve cell triggers release of neurotransmitter Target cell Secreting cell Local regulator diffuses through extracellular fluid (a) Paracrine signaling Endocrine cell Neurotransmitter diffuses across synapse

Secretory vesicle Target cell is stimulated Blood vessel Hormone travels in bloodstream to target cells Target cell (b) Synaptic signaling (c) Hormonal signaling

Fig. 11-5ab Local signaling Target cell Secreting cell Local regulator diffuses through extracellular fluid (a) Paracrine signaling Electrical signal along nerve cell triggers release of neurotransmitter Neurotransmitter

diffuses across synapse Secretory vesicle Target cell is stimulated (b) Synaptic signaling Fig. 11-5c Long-distance signaling Endocrine cell Blood vessel Hormone travels in bloodstream

to target cells Target cell (c) Hormonal signaling The Three Stages of Cell Signaling: A Preview Earl W. Sutherland discovered how the hormone epinephrine acts on cells Sutherland suggested that cells receiving signals went through three processes: Reception Transduction Response Animation: Overview of Cell Signaling Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 11-6-1

EXTRACELLULAR FLUID 1 Reception Receptor Signaling molecule CYTOPLASM Plasma membrane Fig. 11-6-2 CYTOPLASM EXTRACELLULAR FLUID

Plasma membrane 1 Reception 2 Transduction Receptor Relay molecules in a signal transduction pathway Signaling molecule Fig. 11-6-3 CYTOPLASM EXTRACELLULAR FLUID

Plasma membrane 1 Reception 2 Transduction 3 Response Receptor Activation of cellular response Relay molecules in a signal transduction pathway Signaling molecule Concept 11.2: Reception: A signal molecule binds to a receptor protein, causing it to change shape

The binding between a signal molecule (ligand) and receptor is highly specific A shape change in a receptor is often the initial transduction of the signal Most signal receptors are plasma membrane proteins Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Receptors in the Plasma Membrane Most water-soluble signal molecules bind to specific sites on receptor proteins in the plasma membrane There are three main types of membrane receptors: G protein-coupled receptors Receptor tyrosine kinases Ion channel receptors Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

A G protein-coupled receptor is a plasma membrane receptor that works with the help of a G protein The G protein acts as an on/off switch: If GDP is bound to the G protein, the G protein is inactive Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 11-7a Signaling-molecule binding site Segment that interacts with G proteins G protein-coupled receptor Fig. 11-7b

Plasma membrane G protein-coupled receptor Activated receptor Signaling molecule GDP CYTOPLASM GDP Enzyme G protein

(inactive) GTP 2 1 Activated enzyme GTP GDP Pi Cellular response 3 4

Inactive enzyme Receptor tyrosine kinases are membrane receptors that attach phosphates to tyrosines A receptor tyrosine kinase can trigger multiple signal transduction pathways at once Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 11-7c Ligand-binding site Signaling molecule (ligand) Signaling molecule

Helix Tyrosines Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr

Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr

Receptor tyrosine kinase proteins CYTOPLASM Dimer 1 2 Activated relay proteins Tyr Tyr Tyr

P P Tyr Tyr Tyr P Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr

6 ATP Activated tyrosine kinase regions 6 ADP Tyr P P P P Tyr Tyr P

P P Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr P P Fully activated receptor tyrosine kinase Inactive relay proteins

3 4 Cellular response 1 Cellular response 2 A ligand-gated ion channel receptor acts as a gate when the receptor changes shape When a signal molecule binds as a ligand to the receptor, the gate allows specific ions, such as Na+ or Ca2+, through a channel in the receptor Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 11-7d

1 Signaling molecule (ligand) Gate closed Ligand-gated ion channel receptor 2 Ions Plasma membrane Gate open Cellular response

3 Gate closed Intracellular Receptors Some receptor proteins are intracellular, found in the cytosol or nucleus of target cells Small or hydrophobic chemical messengers can readily cross the membrane and activate receptors Examples of hydrophobic messengers are the steroid and thyroid hormones of animals An activated hormone-receptor complex can act as a transcription factor, turning on specific genes Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 11-8-1

Hormone (testosterone) EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Plasma membrane Receptor protein DNA NUCLEUS CYTOPLASM Fig. 11-8-2

Hormone (testosterone) EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Plasma membrane Receptor protein Hormonereceptor complex DNA NUCLEUS CYTOPLASM

Fig. 11-8-3 Hormone (testosterone) EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Plasma membrane Receptor protein Hormonereceptor complex DNA

NUCLEUS CYTOPLASM Fig. 11-8-4 Hormone (testosterone) EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Plasma membrane Receptor protein Hormonereceptor complex

DNA mRNA NUCLEUS CYTOPLASM Fig. 11-8-5 Hormone (testosterone) EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Plasma membrane Receptor

protein Hormonereceptor complex DNA mRNA NUCLEUS CYTOPLASM New protein Concept 11.3: Transduction: Cascades of molecular interactions relay signals from receptors to target molecules in the cell Signal transduction usually involves multiple steps Multistep pathways can amplify a signal: A few

molecules can produce a large cellular response Multistep pathways provide more opportunities for coordination and regulation of the cellular response Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Signal Transduction Pathways The molecules that relay a signal from receptor to response are mostly proteins Like falling dominoes, the receptor activates another protein, which activates another, and so on, until the protein producing the response is activated At each step, the signal is transduced into a different form, usually a shape change in a protein Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Protein Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation

In many pathways, the signal is transmitted by a cascade of protein phosphorylations Protein kinases transfer phosphates from ATP to protein, a process called phosphorylation Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Protein phosphatases remove the phosphates from proteins, a process called dephosphorylation This phosphorylation and dephosphorylation system acts as a molecular switch, turning activities on and off Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 11-9 Signaling molecule

Receptor Activated relay molecule Inactive protein kinase 1 t la ry ho Inactive protein kinase 2 p os

Ph Active protein kinase 1 ATP e ad Inactive protein kinase 3 sc ca PP

n Pi P Active protein kinase 2 io ADP ATP ADP Pi

Active protein kinase 3 PP Inactive protein P ATP P ADP Pi PP

Active protein Cellular response Small Molecules and Ions as Second Messengers The extracellular signal molecule that binds to the receptor is a pathways first messenger Second messengers are small, nonprotein, water-soluble molecules or ions that spread throughout a cell by diffusion Second messengers participate in pathways initiated by G protein-coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases Cyclic AMP and calcium ions are common second messengers Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Cyclic AMP Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is one of the most widely used second messengers Adenylyl cyclase, an enzyme in the plasma membrane, converts ATP to cAMP in response to an extracellular signal Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 11-10 Adenylyl cyclase Phosphodiesterase Pyrophosphate P ATP Pi

cAMP AMP Many signal molecules trigger formation of cAMP Other components of cAMP pathways are G proteins, G protein-coupled receptors, and protein kinases cAMP usually activates protein kinase A, which phosphorylates various other proteins Further regulation of cell metabolism is provided by G-protein systems that inhibit adenylyl cyclase Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 11-11 First messenger

Adenylyl cyclase G protein G protein-coupled receptor GTP ATP cAMP Second messenger Protein kinase A Cellular responses Calcium Ions and Inositol Triphosphate (IP3)

Calcium ions (Ca2+) act as a second messenger in many pathways Calcium is an important second messenger because cells can regulate its concentration Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 11-12 EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Plasma membrane Ca2+ pump ATP Mitochondrion Nucleus

CYTOSOL Ca2+ pump Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ATP Key High [Ca2+] Low [Ca2+] Ca2+ pump A signal relayed by a signal transduction pathway may trigger an increase in calcium in the cytosol Pathways leading to the release of calcium

involve inositol triphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG) as additional second messengers Animation: Signal Transduction Pathways Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 11-13-1 EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Signaling molecule (first messenger) G protein DAG GTP G protein-coupled receptor

Phospholipase C PIP2 IP3 (second messenger) IP3-gated calcium channel Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) CYTOSOL Ca2+ Fig. 11-13-2 EXTRACELLULAR

FLUID Signaling molecule (first messenger) G protein DAG GTP G protein-coupled receptor Phospholipase C PIP2 IP3 (second messenger) IP3-gated calcium channel

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) CYTOSOL Ca2+ Ca2+ (second messenger ) Fig. 11-13-3 EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Signaling molecule (first messenger) G protein DAG

GTP G protein-coupled receptor PIP2 Phospholipase C IP3 (second messenger) IP3-gated calcium channel Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) CYTOSOL

Ca Various proteins activated 2+ Ca2+ (second messenger ) Cellular responses Concept 11.4: Response: Cell signaling leads to regulation of transcription or cytoplasmic activities The cells response to an extracellular signal is

sometimes called the output response Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Responses Ultimately, a signal transduction pathway leads to regulation of one or more cellular activities The response may occur in the cytoplasm or may involve action in the nucleus Many signaling pathways regulate the synthesis of enzymes or other proteins, usually by turning genes on or off in the nucleus The final activated molecule may function as a transcription factor Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 11-14 Growth factor

Reception Receptor Phosphorylation cascade Transduction CYTOPLASM Inactive transcription factor Active transcription factor P Response

DNA Gene NUCLEUS mRNA Other pathways regulate the activity of enzymes Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 11-15 Reception Binding of epinephrine to G protein-coupled receptor (1 molecule) Transduction Inactive G protein Active G protein (102 molecules) Inactive adenylyl cyclase

Active adenylyl cyclase (102) ATP Cyclic AMP (104) Inactive protein kinase A Active protein kinase A (104) Inactive phosphorylase kinase Active phosphorylase kinase (105) Inactive glycogen phosphorylase Active glycogen phosphorylase (10 6) Response Glycogen Glucose-1-phosphate (108 molecules) Signaling pathways can also affect the physical characteristics of a cell, for example, cell shape Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Fig. 11-16 RESULTS Wild-type (shmoos) Fus3 formin CONCLUSION 1 Mating factor G protein-coupled receptor Shmoo projection forming Formin

P Fus3 GDP GTP Phosphorylation cascade 2 Actin subunit P Formin Formin P

4 Fus3 Fus3 P 3 Microfilament 5 Fig. 11-16a RESULTS Wild-type (shmoos) Fus3

formin Fig. 11-16b CONCLUSION 1 Mating factor G protein-coupled receptor Shmoo projection forming Formin P Fus3 GDP GTP

Phosphorylation cascade 2 Actin subunit P Formin Formin P 4 Fus3 Fus3 P

3 Microfilament 5 Fine-Tuning of the Response Multistep pathways have two important benefits: Amplifying the signal (and thus the response) Contributing to the specificity of the response Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Signal Amplification Enzyme cascades amplify the cells response At each step, the number of activated products is much greater than in the preceding step Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

The Specificity of Cell Signaling and Coordination of the Response Different kinds of cells have different collections of proteins These different proteins allow cells to detect and respond to different signals Even the same signal can have different effects in cells with different proteins and pathways Pathway branching and cross-talk further help the cell coordinate incoming signals Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 11-17 Signaling molecule Receptor Relay molecule

s Response 1 Cell A. Pathway leads to a single response. Response 2 Response 3 Cell B. Pathway branches, leading to two responses. Activation or inhibition Response 4 Cell C. Cross-talk occurs between two pathways.

Response 5 Cell D. Different receptor leads to a different response. Fig. 11-17a Signaling molecule Receptor Relay molecules Response 1 Cell A. Pathway leads to a single response. Response 2

Response 3 Cell B. Pathway branches, leading to two responses. Fig. 11-17b Activation or inhibition Response 4 Cell C. Cross-talk occurs between two pathways. Response 5 Cell D. Different receptor leads to a different response. Signaling Efficiency: Scaffolding Proteins and Signaling Complexes

Scaffolding proteins are large relay proteins to which other relay proteins are attached Scaffolding proteins can increase the signal transduction efficiency by grouping together different proteins involved in the same pathway Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 11-18 Signaling molecule Plasma membrane Receptor Scaffolding protein

Three different protein kinases Termination of the Signal Inactivation mechanisms are an essential aspect of cell signaling When signal molecules leave the receptor, the receptor reverts to its inactive state Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Concept 11.5: Apoptosis (programmed cell death) integrates multiple cell-signaling pathways Apoptosis is programmed or controlled cell suicide A cell is chopped and packaged into vesicles that are digested by scavenger cells

Apoptosis prevents enzymes from leaking out of a dying cell and damaging neighboring cells Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 11-19 2 m Apoptosis in the Soil Worm Caenorhabditis elegans Apoptosis is important in shaping an organism during embryonic development The role of apoptosis in embryonic development was first studied in Caenorhabditis elegans In C. elegans, apoptosis results when specific proteins that accelerate apoptosis override those that put the brakes on apoptosis Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Fig. 11-20 Ced-9 protein (active) inhibits Ced-4 activity Mitochondrion Ced-4 Ced-3 Receptor for deathsignaling molecule Inactive proteins (a) No death signal Ced-9

(inactive) Cell forms blebs Deathsignaling molecule Active Active Ced-4 Ced-3 Activation cascade (b) Death signal Other proteases Nucleases

Fig. 11-20a Ced-9 protein (active) inhibits Ced-4 activity Mitochondrion Receptor for deathsignaling molecule Ced-4 Ced-3 Inactive proteins (a) No death signal Fig. 11-20b

Ced-9 (inactive) Cell forms blebs Deathsignaling molecule Active Active Ced-4 Ced-3 Activation cascade (b) Death signal Other

proteases Nucleases Apoptotic Pathways and the Signals That Trigger Them Caspases are the main proteases (enzymes that cut up proteins) that carry out apoptosis Apoptosis can be triggered by: An extracellular death-signaling ligand DNA damage in the nucleus Protein misfolding in the endoplasmic reticulum Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Apoptosis evolved early in animal evolution and is essential for the development and maintenance of all animals Apoptosis may be involved in some diseases (for example, Parkinsons and Alzheimers);

interference with apoptosis may contribute to some cancers Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 11-21 Interdigital tissue 1 mm Fig. 11-UN1 1 Reception 2 Transduction

3 Response Receptor Relay molecules Signaling molecule Activation of cellular response Fig. 11-UN2 You should now be able to: 1. Describe the nature of a ligand-receptor interaction and state how such interactions initiate a signal-transduction system 2. Compare and contrast G protein-coupled

receptors, tyrosine kinase receptors, and ligandgated ion channels 3. List two advantages of a multistep pathway in the transduction stage of cell signaling 4. Explain how an original signal molecule can produce a cellular response when it may not even enter the target cell Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings 5. Define the term second messenger; briefly describe the role of these molecules in signaling pathways 6. Explain why different types of cells may respond differently to the same signal molecule 7. Describe the role of apoptosis in normal development and degenerative disease in vertebrates Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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