4. Fasciculus occipitofrontalis superior 2. Fasciculus uncinatus 5. Fasciculus perpendicularis occipitalis 3. Fasciculus longitudinalis inferior Speech areas Commissural fibers Corpus callosum symmetrical areas of the hemispheres splenium, corpus, genu, rostrum Commissura anterior
temporal lobes olfatory bulbs Commisssura posterior left and right parts of tectum & tegmentum of midbrain Commissura fornicis between both crura of fornix Corpus callosum - forceps minor - forceps major
- tapetum Commissura anterior - pars anterior - pars posterior Commissura anterior (frontal section) Commissural fibers 1. Corpus callosum 2. Commissura anterior
3. Forceps minor 4. Forceps major Lateralisation of functions Split brain syndrome . Dominant hemisphre - mention the stimulus B. Nondominant hemisphere points the stimulus C. Anomia can not name stimuli on the left hand
D. Alexia in the left visual fields E. Test hybrid face the patient answers man, but point the woman Projection fibers Capsula interna 1. Crus anterior between nucl. caudatus nucl. lentiformis - stripes of grey matter 2. Genu 3. Crus posterior
Pars thalamolentiformis - between thalamus & nucl. lentiformis Pars retrolentiformis Pars sublentiformis Capsula interna 1. Tractus corticonuclearis 2. Tractus corticospinalis 3. Fibrae corticothalamicae 4. Fibrae thalamocorticales
5. Radiatio acustica 6. Radiatio optica 14. Fibrae corticorubrales White matter (frontal section) 1. Corpus callosum 2. Capsula interna 3. Fasciculus occipitofrontalis superior 4. Fasciculus longitudinalis superior 5. Fasciculus occipitofrontalis inferior
6. Cingulum 7. Fasciculus uncinatus 8. Fasciculus longitudinalis inferior Basal ganglia Location Section through the base of hemisphere exposes a. Paired nuclear masses within the hemispheres. b. Surounded by white matter (capsula interna, capsula externa, capsula extrema)
Basal Basal ganglia ganglia Components Components Components of the Basal ganglia Corpus Striatum Striatum ----- Caudate Nucleus & Putamen Pallidum ----- Globus Pallidus (GP) Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta (SNc)
Pars Reticulata (SNr) Subthalamic Nucleus (STN) Ventral Striatum Ventral Pallidum Nucleus Accumbens Septi Noncholiergic part of Substantia Innominata Basal Basalganglia ganglia Components Components
Components Striatal Compartments (Mosaic or Modular Organization) 1. Striosome (Patches) - 10-20% of total striatal mass - low acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity - high substance P (SP), neurotensin (NT), tyrosine hydroxylase - high expression of D1 dopamine receptor - high opiate receptor 2. Matrix - high acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity - high somatostatin (SRIF) activity
- high D2 dopamine receptor Basal BasalGanglia Ganglia Introduction Introduction Traditional Concepts of Basal Ganglia Corpus Striatum Caudate Nucleus Lenticular Nucleus
Putamen Globus Pallidus Corpus Amygdaloideum Neostriatum Striatum Paleostriatum Pallidum
Archistriatum Lateral surface of basal ganglia 1. Putamen 2. Tail of caudate nucleus 3. Caudatolenticular gray bridge 4. Amygdaloid body 5. thalamus
1. head of caudate nucelus 2. body of caudate nucelus 3. caudatolenticular gray bridge 4. putamen 5. tail of caudate nucleus 6. external segment of globus pallidus 7. internal segment of
globus pallidus 8. amygdaloid body 9. nucleus accumbens septi Medial surface of basal ganglia Components of Basal Ganglia Putamen Globus pallidus external segment internal segment
c. Substantia nigra d. Nuclei raphe 2. Efferent fibers a. Pallidum [striopallidal] [ b. SN [strionigral] Basal ganglia Connections B. Globus pallidus (pallidum)
1. Afferent fibers . Striatum (striopallidal fibers) b. Nucleus subthalamicus (fasciculus subthalamicus) c. Cerebral cortex d. Substantia nigra e. Nuclei raphe 2. Efferents fibers a. Common final pathway to thalamus b. Ansa lenticularis, fasciculus lenticularis, fasciculus subthalamicus Basal ganglia
Connections Basal Ganglia (Main Motor Circuit) Primary Motor Area (M I) Connections Supplementary Motor Area
lenticular fasciculus PALLIDUM (GPi) Basal Basal Ganglia Ganglia and and Pyramidal Pyramidal Tract Tract
SMA SMA (supplementary (supplementarymotor motorarea) area) upper motor neuron UMN pyramidal tract
lower motor neuron LMN BASAL GANGLIA CIRCUIT Functional role Regulate the motor activity by intrinsic and extrisic feed-back circuits Role in the control of movements
Suppress the motor tone Suppress the excesive and unnecessary movements Signs in lesion of basal ganglia 1. Akinesia & bradykinesia - difficulty in initiation and cessation of movement 2. Rigidity of muscles
Basal Gangla Circuit ---- Selection Mechanism Selection Inability -------- Akinesia and Hypokinesia Faulty Selection ----------- Hyperkinesia 2. Generation (learning) of motor programs Programming of several motor fragments into complex motor routines Cerebral Palsy ------------- Disordered motor program SYDENHAMS SYDENHAMSCHOREA CHOREA Clinical Feature
Principal Pathologic Lesion: Corpus Striatum - Complication of Rheumatic Fever - Fine, disorganized , and random movements of extremities, face and tongue - Accompanied by Muscular Hypotonia - Typical exaggeration of associated movements during voluntary activity
- Usually recovers spontaneously in 1 to 4 months HUNTINGTONS CHOREA Clinical Feature - Predominantly autosomal dominantly inherited chronic fatal disease (Gene: chromosome 4) - Insidious onset: Usually 40-50 - Choreic movements in onset - Frequently associated with emotional disturbances
- Ultimately, grotesque gait and sever dysarthria, progressive dementia ensues. Principal Pathologic Lesion: Corpus Striatum (esp. caudate nucleus) and Cerebral Cortex
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