Cell Division and Fertilization

Cell Division and Fertilization

Get notebooks 4 minutes for mission countdown Use notes if needed 1 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004 Biology

Cell Division and Fertilization 2 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004 5 minutes to write your Journal Entry *participation grade* Why do we need to replace cells? When has

your body ever needed to replace cells? How do you think this happens? Show me your paragraph when you are finished 3 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004 Interphase

Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase 4 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004 Facts

30,000 -40,000 skin cells die every hour In 1 day you lose a million skin cells The dust in your house.made mostly of dead skin cells In 1 year, you lose 8 pounds of skin cells 5 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004 Some white blood cells only live a few hours

Red blood cells have a life span of 120 days Nerve/brain cells live as long as you do which why its important you dont kill them(example: with drugs) because they dont come back! 6 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004

How many cells? An adult human is made up of about 100 trillion cells. Thats 100 000 000 000 000 cells! Everyone started out as just one single cell. How does one cell become 100 trillion? 7 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004

Mitosis Cell Division This animation will be explained in more detail in the slides to come. For now, just sit back and watch it. 8 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004

Mitosis Why is mitosis important? For growth How else would you go from being a single fertilized egg cell to the young person you are today?

9 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004 To replace worn/ damaged cells - did you know that we shed our skin cells about every 35 days. But don't worry, we do not shed all our skin cells at the same time like snakes do. In human beings, only the skin

cells that are old are shed, others are not. 10 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004 To repair damaged tissue -when you cut yourself, new skin cells will grow

to seal the wound. These new cells come from preexisting cells found near the wound that divided many, many times. 11 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004

Cell division and genetic information Cells dont just split in half when they divide. If they did, there wouldnt be much of the cells left! It is essential that the genetic information carried in a cell is transferred to the new cells. Where is genetic information carried in a cell?

When a cell divides, how can this genetic information be transferred without any of it being lost? 12 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004 Cell division and chromosomes Chromosomes (parts of DNA) in the nucleus carry the genetic info Chromosomes must be accurately

copied and passed on during cell division. This is important to make sure that no genetic information is lost. 13 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004 What is mitosis?

Mitosis begins with 1 cell. How many chromosomes does this cell contain? (answer: 4) original cell First the cell makes a copy of each chromosome

then it divides. new cell has full set of chromosomes and is identical to the original cell. 14 of 29 cell division

2 new cells Boardworks Ltd 2004 What is mitosis? Each new cell can keep on dividing by mitosis. Mitosis makes new cells by dividing them for growth and repair in all living things. Thats

how you get from one cell to 50 billion! 15 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004 So what is the life cycle of a cell? Think about humans, can

humans reproduce at birth? What has to happen first? Lets watch an animation that shows the cell cycle 16 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004 17 of 29

Boardworks Ltd 2004 Mitosis animation 18 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004 In foldable: write definition and detailed picture under flap

At the end of Interphase, a cell that is ready to divide looks like this: Loosely coiled DNA The cell has grown to nearly 2X its original size, and the DNA has been copied. 19 of 29

Boardworks Ltd 2004 The actual process of dividing is called : Mitosis There are 4 main stages: Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase To remember order: Pass Me A Taco

20 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004 Prophase Prophase - Nucleus goes away - The loosely coiled DNA condenses (gets supercoiled)forms chromosomes. You see chromosomes (like the letter X)

in a microscope - Centrioles release spindle fibres; spindle fibers will attach to the centromere of each chromosome - by the end of prophase, the nuclear membrane is completely gone 21 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004

Metaphase chromosomes move to middle of the cell spindle fibers, attached to the centromere of each chromosome, help the chromosomes move to the middle

22 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004 Anaphase Each chromosome separates so that a copy of each DNA molecule moves to the poles of the cell

Chromosomes pulled apart 23 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004 Telophase The spindle fibers disappear A nucleus reforms

The cell begins to pinch apart at the centre until it completely separates into 2 distinct cells, each with its own set of genetic material (DNA). This division of the cytoplasm is called cytokinesis. Cell organelles are also equally distributed between the daughter cells

24 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004 Mitosis makes identical cells!!! They are clones! 25 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004

Mitosis animation 26 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004 Mitosis summary How does mitosis turn one cell into two new cells?

27 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004 What phase is this? 28 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004

What phase is this? 29 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004 What phase is this? 30 of 29

Boardworks Ltd 2004 What phase is this? 31 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004 What phase is this?

32 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004 What phase is this? 33 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004

What phase is this? 34 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004 What phase is this? 35 of 29

Boardworks Ltd 2004 What phase is this? 36 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004 What phase is this?

37 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004 What phase is this? 38 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004

What phase is this? 39 of 29 Boardworks Ltd 2004

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