Capsulotomy - Phaco Training

Capsulotomy - Phaco Training

Dr. Navin Gupta M.S. Shankar Netrika Eye Hospital CAPSULOTOMY History Canopener - Jacques Daviel, 1752 Envelope Technique - Introduced by

Sourdilla and Baikuff 1979. Popularised by Galand Capsulorhexis - Gimbel, Neuhann, Shimizu, 1984 Types Multipuncture (canopener) capsulotomy

Envelope (inter capsular) capsulotomy Continuous curvilinear capsulotomy Terminology Capsulorhexis - Tear the capsule Capsulotomy - Cut the capsule Capsulectomy - Remove the capsule

CAN-OPENER CAPSULOTOMY DEFINITION - A ragged but circular opening in anterior capsule made by creating multiple punctures TECHNIQUE 2 mm perforation into anterior chamber at

limbus AC is formed with VE Cystotome or double bent 26 G needle used Punctures in anterior capsule made from 6 oclock position parallel to dilated pupil margin

TECHNIQUE contd.. Proceed in clock wise direction in circular fashion Removal of circular capsular flap with Kelman Mac Pherson forceps

ADVANTAGES Easier to learn Facilitates superior nuclear prolapse Easier to use in small pupil cases VE not necessary Removal of 12 oclock cortex easier Easy placement of IOL in sulcus

DISADVANTAGES Anterior capsular radial tears High zonular stress Capsule tags may occlude I/A port IOL decentration - pea podding Poor support for PCIOL in PCR ENVELOPE CAPSULOTOMY

Synonym:- Inter capsular capsulotomy, Linear capsulotomy DEF : Small incision anterior capsulotomy Technique Linear incision made in upper 1/3 rd to

middle 1/3 rd of anterior capsule IOL implanted in the bag Cuts made at end of incision with vannas Capsule flap lifted torn off like in capsulorhexis ADVANTAGE Minimal tissue trauma

Almost intact capsular bag Facilitates cortex removal Polishing of anterior capsule easier In PC rent - anterior capsule utilised for IOL support DISADVANTAGES

Asymmetry of capsular flaps Radial anterior capsular tears to zonules Unsafe for PHE Capsulorhexis Meets the demands of advanced cataract and IOL implantation surgery

Can be reproduced by experienced surgeons Potential for other developments Development North American Development Howard Gimbel Europeon Development

Thomas Neuhann Asian Development Kimiya Shimizu Principle & Advantages Due to lens capsule shearing property which resembles a cellophane

1. Endocapsular Phaco possible 2. Limits creating radial tears 3. Hydro dissection more safe 4. Edges of rhexis can stretch and resist damage with energetic maneuvers 5. Zonular stress reduced to minimum and is distributed uniformly along the equator 6. Turbulence (in phaco) is contained better

inside the capsule Advantages 7. 8. Facilitates cortical aspiration Better IOL centration within the bag

placement 9. Capsular bag as Closed system maintaining intracapsular space for surgical maneuvers 10. With PCR , intact anterior capsule provides sulcus IOL implantation possible 11. Minimizes PCO formation Disadvantages

Difficult learning curve Limits nucleus prolapse Not safe in small pupils Removal of sub incisional cortex difficult VE necessary Prerequisites High microscope magnification

Light beam should be angled good red reflex Luminosity must be sufficient Pupil maximum mydriasis Depth of anterior chamber maintained throughout

High molecular weight OVDs Capsular opening must respect zonular fibers attachment Shape and size of capsulotomy must take into account the phacoemulsification technique planned and the size of the IOL

Current standard technique 1. The instrument * cystitome / Needle * Forceps 2. The access - via * main incision * side port incision 3. Medium irrigation with - fluid or

viscoelastic Technique Steps of the procedure: Initiation of tear Raising the flap Gentle extension of the flap

curvlinearly Completion of the rhesis- from outside in With needle With forceps

CCC with shearing CCC with Ripping Ideal size of anterior capsule opening As large as possible easy nucleus manipulation Small enough sealing in effect

Limitation to ideal size size of pupil Adequate 5 ~ 6 mm 1. Smaller problem in phaco ,IOL implantation ,post operative retinal examination difficult , increased chances of capsular phimosis 2. Larger nuclear fragments tend to exit from bag rhexis margin not over optic thus higher

incidence of PCO Fourteen rules of Capsulorhexis 1. AC chamber well - filled to maintain 2. 3. 4. 5.

shape Use high magnification during the operation Look for the red reflex Use high molecular weight OVD s (Healon GV , Healon, Provisc) Operate slowly & carefully

6 Start in the middle with the formation of the flap and continue under the tunnel and then on the remaining 360 degree 7. Complete rhexis from outside in rather than inside 8. Repeat capsular grasping several times(at least 4 times ), which means opening by sectors

9. Keep the opening within the limit of the zonular fibers 10. A small rhexis is easier to perform than a large one 11. A small rhexis can be widened at the end of implantation, whereas the large one will tend to escape

12. An irregular rhexis is better than one with a tendency to escape 13. Should the smallest sign of escape appear,use OVDs of high molecular weight to reform the chamber 14. If problems appear, convert to a different technique to reduce complication

CAPSULOTOMIES IN VARIOUS TYPES OF CATARACTS PSCC - Capsulorhexis Posterior polar cataract- capsulorhexis Mature - Canopener Hypermature - Envelope Traumatic - Capsulorhexis, Canopener

CAPSULOTOMIES IN VARIOUS TYPES OF CATARACTS (contd...) Subluxated lens - Capsulorhexis Coloboma of iris - Envelope, capsulorhexis

Undilated pupil - Capsulotomy under iris Spincterotomy SI CONCLUSION CANOPENER Easy technique

IOL in sulcus CAPSULORHEXIS Ideal Maintains integrity of capsular bag Absolute in PHE In the bag fixation of IOL

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