Bonding Between Atoms -

Bonding Between Atoms -

Bonding Between Atoms Why Do Atoms Form Bonds To get a stable octet of valence electrons. Called a noble gas configuration

Changes in Energy Energy is released when bonds form. Exothermic = Bond Forms Exothermic Lower

energy = more stable Endothermic = Bond Breaks Bond Formation is EXOTHERMIC Major Types of Bonds IONIC

BOND Metal and Nonmetal valence e- transferred COVALENT All

BOND nonmetals valence e- shared Metallic Pure Bonding metals & alloys

Valence electrons become mobile between all the atoms. What Type of Bonding? _________CaCl2 _________C6H12O6 _________ CO2 _________ Fe

_________ H2O _________ Al(NO3)3 _________ Mg _________ NH3 Lewis Dot Diagrams of Atoms Show valence electrons involved in bonding

Lewis Dot Diagrams of Ions Positive Ions (cations): lose outer shell valence to get stable octet. Negative Ions (anions): gain electrons to complete outer shell octet.

Do Bonding Packet Pgs 4, 5, 6 Ionic Bonding Crash Course: Ionic Bonding

Happens between metals and nonmetals What are Ionic Bonds? (1:30) Electronegativity Difference Ionic compounds: large differences in

atomic EN values ( > 1.7) Greater EN diff. = more Ionic Character. Ex: EN Values Metal Na = 0.9 Nonmetal Cl = 3.2

Nonmetal with higher EN takes electron(s) from metal Atoms Become Ions Metals Lose Electrons: become

(+) ion Ex: Mg is 2-8-2 Loses 2 electrons to become Mg+2 2-8 Nonmetals become Gain Electrons: usually take top (-) charge

() ion Ex: Cl is 2-8-7 Gains 1 electron to become Cl-1 2-8-8 Ionic Bond = Electron Transfer

As ions form, an exchange or transfer of electrons happens. Lithium (metal) 2-1 Fluorine (nonmetal)

2-7 Positively and negatively charged ions form and attract each other due to OPPOSITE CHARGES. +

IONIC BOND ion ion Forming Table Salt :6 minutes They

transfer enough electrons so that all get a stable octet of valence! Drawing Lewis Dot Diagrams of Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds have

uniform crystalline lattice structure. https:// /watch? v=lhC42qxk5kQ& safe=active Can

you identify an ionic compound from a covalent? Ionic = Metal with nonmetals _____________MgBr2 _____________Ca(NO3)2 _____________P2O5 _____________SiO2 _____________Na2S

_____________H2S Ionic Compounds are Neutral Subscripts show ratio of ions Total positive and negative charges must balance Compound is electrically neutral.

Writing Neutral Ionic Formulas Write symbols of elements with charge Criss-Cross charges if necessary to balance the formula Put parenthesis around polyatomic ions if more than one in formula

Simplify if needed. Tutorial on writing ionic formulas 9 min Stock System for Naming Ionic Compounds Binary:

Contain ions of 2 elements Ex: MgCl2, Al2O3, NaCl Naming Binary Ionics Name metal Name nonmetal with -ide ending. Note:

Ex: Name never indicates # of ions NaCl, MgBr2, CaO, Al2S3 Writing Ionic Formulas: (3:22) Ternary

Ionics: Contain 3 elements Polyatomic ion present. Note: Elements inside the polyatomic ion are covalently bonded (all nonmetals). These compounds contain both ionic and covalent bonds!!

MgSO4 Naming Ternary Ionics (with polyatomic) Name Metal Name polyatomic ion If two polyatomics, name them both Ex: NaNO3, Ca3(PO4)2, NH4Cl Ionics with Polyatomic Ions: (3:46) Why does the 3rd compound use a Roman Numeral in its name? When to Use a Roman Numeral Roman numerals are used when the metal

can have more than one possible charge. Roman numeral indicates the charge the metal takes in that compound and must be indicated in the name Ex: NiBr2 NiBr3

Nickel II Bromide Nickel III Bromide Name the following ionic compounds: Fe(NO3)3 NaF

____________________ _________________________ Cu3P ________________________ Al2(SO4)3 ____________________

Write the correct formula for: _____________cobalt III oxide _____________magnesium

sulfide _____________ lead II nitrate _____________ calcium phosphate Properties of Ionic

Compounds High Melting Point Attraction between ions is very strong. Requires large amount of heat energy to separate ions and make solid melt. Higher MP than covalents Solubility in Water

Most ionics will dissolve in water, or be soluble. When dissolved in water they are aqueous Ex: NaCl (aq)

Water is a polar molecule. Acts like magnet to pull ions apart and into solution. Ions are now dissociated or hydrated ions.

Conductivity Ionic compounds conduct when ions are mobile or free to move about. Ionic compounds conduct when:

Molten (melted or liquid) (l) Aqueous (aq) Molten Ionics can Conduct! Conductivity DO NOT conduct when solid as the ions locked in place. Most covalents do not conduct Which

compound has the highest Melting point? KCl or SO2 Which substances conduct electricity? NaCl (s) CO2 (g) MgBr2 (l)

C6H12O6 (s) LiNO3 (aq) Lattice Energy (Honors) Energy released when ionic bond is formed The more energy, the more stable and stronger the bond. Related to Coulombic Attraction Variables

that Determine its Magnitude: Atomic Size Ion Charge See Honors Packet Pages

Crash Course Chemistry: Nomenclature (only watch first 6 minutes, skip section on naming acids for now) Dancing Queen: Song about Ionic vs Covalent Bonding Crash Course: Atomic Hookups

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