Blue Notes 12 Bar Blues Slavery - PC\|MAC

Blue Notes 12 Bar Blues Slavery - PC\|MAC

The Blues Blue Notes 12 Bar Blues Slavery Vibrato Slides Blues scale The blues scale is the scale that is used to improvise with. Blues music started in the southern slave areas of America. Slaves sang work songs and spirituals that expressed their fears, hopes and dreams, hence (feeling blue). The music spread to the northern cities and became the Basis of all popular music today. They are chromatic notes which clash and add a dissonant quality to fit in with the expressive lyrics of the songs. The rhythms in blues music are syncopated (off beat) The 12 Bar Blues forms the basic structure upon which the blues is composed. The pattern is based on 3 chords with 4 beats per bar. In a major scale the chords are the 1st, 4th and 5th chords (I, IV & V) known as primary chords. Blues singers add vibrato (a shaky / trembling quality) and slides (sliding up and down in pitch) to their vocal performance to express the lyrics that are often about hardship. They include short melodic phrases followed by an instrumental link.Etta James, AT LAST Listen to Bessie Smiths Careless Love Blues Bessie Smith, CARELESS LOVE The 12 Bar Blues chord structure in C Major looks like this: C//// C//// C//// C//// F//// F//// C//// C//// G//// F//// C//// C////

The dashes after each chord indicate that the chord is played 4 times in each bar. Performers improvise over this structure (make it up as they go along). Blues Improv Brass instruments feature in Blues music. In this extract you will hear a trombone and a trumpet both with mutes to portray a whining / talkative / buzzing / wah wah sound. Blues became an inspiration for many other types of music. MOTOWN Motown is an American record company. The company was founded by Berry Gordy, Jr. on January 12, 1959 in Detroit, Michigan as Tamla Records, and was incorporated as "Motown Record Corporation" on April 14, 1960. The name, a portmanteau of motor and town, is also a nickname for Detroit. Motown played an important role in the racial integration of popular music as an African American-owned record label which achieved significant crossover success. In the 1960s, Motown and its subsidiary labels were the most successful proponents of what came to be known as "The Motown Sound", a style of soul music. Soul music is a popular music genre that originated in the United States in the 1950s and early 1960s. It combined elements of African-American gospel music, rhythm and blues, and often jazz. with a distinct pop influence. During the 1960s, Motown achieved spectacular success for a small record company: 79 records in the Top Ten of the Billboard Hot 100 record chart between 1960 and 1969.[1] http ://www.youtube.com/watch?v=--jWPzNNdN4 &safe=active Smokey Robinson Once pronounced by Bob Dylan as Americas greatest living poet, acclaimed singer-songwriter Smokey Robinsons career spans over 4 decades of hits. He has received numerous awards including the Grammy Living Legend Award, NARAS Lifetime Achievement Award, Honorary Doctorate (Howard University), Kennedy Center Honors and the National Medal of Arts Award from the President of the United States. He has also been inducted into the Rock n Roll Hall of Fame and the Songwriters Hall of Fame. Born and raised in Detroit, Michigan, Robinson founded The Miracles while still in high school. The group was Berry Gordys first vocal group, and it was at Robinsons suggestion that Gordy started the Motown Record dynasty. Their single of Robinsons Shop Around became Motowns first #1 hit on the R&B singles chart http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AQGXa3FiXKM&safe=active During the course of his 50-year career in music, Robinson has accumulated more than 4,000 songs to his credit and continues to thrill sold-out audiences around the world with his high tenor voice, impeccable timing, and profound sense of lyric. Never resting on his laurels, Smokey Robinson remains a beloved icon in our musical heritage. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5RDUYOSpH9w&safe=active

Popular Music from the 1960s Rhythm and Blues developed through dance halls in Chicago. It mixed the Gospel style of music with blues instrumentation. It was much faster and louder than the blues. Delta Rhythm Boys - Taking the'A' Train Blues Brothers Shake a Tail Feather: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rN5V-6yCbpg Rock N Roll is a fusion (mixture) of rhythm and blues and country and western music. Elvis Presley, Chuck Berry and Little Richard were popular in the Rock N Roll craze. Originally a string / double bass was used alongside acoustic guitars and piano but Rock n Roll helped to establish the lead guitar, rhythm guitar, bass guitar and drum kit.Elvis Presley, Jailhouse Rock Gospel and Soul has its roots in African American churches. It developed from spirituals. Gospel includes: A powerful solo singer improvising over chords The use of melisma (an extension of words e.g. swee ee ee eet Jesus) Sliding into a note from a lower or higher pitch An emotional quality Strong harmonies in many parts You tube link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zXzfhG9NvFw Soul Music is a mixture of rhythm and blues and gospel. Instead of the religious lyrics in gospel soul includes lyrics about love and relationships. You tube link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=STKkWj2WpWM Pop Ballads are solo songs with a fairly slow tempo. They are usually in verse form and tell a story. BALLAD OF CURTIS LOEW, Lynard Skynard BRANDY, by Looking Glass Popular song forms are often: Introduction Verse 1 Chorus Instrumental link Verse 2 Chorus Middle 8 Chorus Listen to Bob Dylans Blowin in the Wind. The song has a straightforward melody and a simple chord accompaniment on the acoustic guitar. Bob Dylan, Blowin in the Wind More Rock N Roll The Beatles and The Rolling Stones were rival bands that had a massive teen following in the 60s and 70s. The Rolling Stones tried to be more extreme than The Beatles by using distortion (harsh / overdriven), feedback (a loud whining sound produced by amplifying the guitar) and power chords (an open chord using the 1st and the 5th note). The Beatles - I Want to Hold Your Hand Rollin Stones, Satisfaction Country Music

Country music is a genre of American popular music that originated in the Southern United States in Atlanta, Georgia in the 1920s. Over the last century, the term Country Music is the used to describe the many styles that have developed. Country music originated from the folk music of mostly white, working-class Americans, who blended popular songs, music from immigrant communities, fiddle tunes, ballads, cowboy songs, and African American blues. 1920s Arkansas Traveler , Wreck of the Old 97 1930s-1940s That Silver Haired Dady of Mine, Gene Autry, Lovesick Blues, Hank Williams 1950s-1960s Folsom Prison Blues, Johnny Cash, Stand By Your Man, Tammy Wynette , Kawliga, Hank Williams 1970s-1980s - Elvira, Oak Ridge Boys , Blue Eyes Crying in the Rain, Willie Nelson, 9 to 5, Dolly Parton 1990s - Ropin' the Wind, Garth Brooks , Amazed, Lonestar 2000s to Present - Cruise, Florida Georgia Line, Need You Now, Lady Antebellum Musical TheatreHip-Hop ock Music Instruments that play Rock music include lead guitar, rhythm guitar, bass guitar, keyboard and drum kit. There is a strong emphasis on the back beat beats 2 and 4 in a 4/4/ beat. 4 4 1 2 3 4 Psychedelic Rock has strange lyrics and the use of exotic instruments. Technological effects like panning (moving sound between the 2 stereo speakers) and reverb (an electronic longer lasting sound) are used. Top 10 Progressive Rock takes an idea and spreads it across songs lasting up to 15 minutes or more. Often albums have a story to them e.g. Pink Floyds Dark Side of the Moon. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DLO th-BuCNY Punk Rock includes lyrics that are antiestablishment. Fast tempos and distortion are used. Top 10 Punk Rock Songs Hard Rock has riffs (repeated patterns) and lead guitar solos to show off the skills of the players. Hard rock often uses modal scales Top 10 Slash Solos Musicals are plays that use music to express emotion. Musicals make use of solo songs, ensembles and choruses accompanied by an orchestra. Les Miserables, I Dreamed a Dream

Like opera, in musicals some words are sung however in most musicals spoken word is used much more than Sung. Lyrics and singing style are very expressive and dramatic. Words are pronounced. Intonation (pronunciation) is very important. Phantom of the Opera Vocal acrobatics are used in musicals. Male singers often have falsetto voices (very high vocal range). You Tube Link: Bring Him Home Les Miserables Les Miserables, Bring Him Home Hip-Hop emerged in New York in the 1970s. DJs played percussion loops (drum samples of sound that were looped round again and again) to create a strong rhythmic beat. You Tube Link: Hip Hop http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jn5 RMwUyE3A&feature=related In Hip Hop everything is built up in layers. There are midi drum patterns (computerized patterns) a bass line, supporting orchestration (synthesizer, strings, piano, etc). In the break drums play a short solo. Rapping is also a feature of Hip Hop. Loops were originally created on tape but nowadays musicians can create their own and add samples (sections of other songs pre-recorded) which are looped (played over and over again), synthesized (made electronic) and modified in many different ways. HAPPY Rhythm & Bass (R&B) is a form of Hip Hop where there is an emphasis on a strong beat. Lyrics often include urban, city issues. You Tube Link: Good Life Kanye West http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FE KEjpTzB0Q Caribbean & South American Music The Caribbean is a group of islands between the USA and South America. Calypso came from Trinidad and Tobago at the start of the 20th Century. Lyrics are about island life and can be political. Calypso music is used in carnivals as celebratory music. Instruments used are

brass, saxophones, drums and electric guitars. Steel drums are also a feature of Calypso music. You Tube Link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8xNyMrK YVkg&feature=related Salsa means sauce in Spanish. It is a type of dance music associated with Cuba, South America (Latin America). Salsa uses a 4/4 time signature and is based on a repeated rhythm called a clave (pronounced Clar vae) around which musicians play different rhythmic accompaniments. You Tube Link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pLqasxGY WX8 Instruments used in Salsa are Congas, Bongos, Claves, Maracas, Trumpet, Saxophone, Piano, Timbales, Guiro, Drum Kit, Cowbells, Trombone, Cabasa, String Bass, guitars! Reggae music has its origins in Jamaica towards the end of the 1960s. It was built on riffs, syncopated rhythms and a strong backbeat played on the electric bass guitar with emphasis on beats 2 and 4 of the bar. Lyrics were about love, peace, freedom and revolution. Jamaicans use their religion, Rastafarianism, to influence their lives and their music. They wear dreadlocks in their hair and the green, red & yellow colors of the Rastafarian flag. ONE LOVE Instruments used in reggae music are electric guitars, synthesizers, piano, drum kit. African Music Call & Response Djembe AfricanKora music has many functions: religious, ritualistic, folklore, myth. Music is often combined with dance. African choral music includes call and response. The solo singer starts by singing a melody (call) which is repeated (response) by other singers. It is common for different melodies to be sung at the same time producing polyphonic / contrapuntal textures. At other times harmonic / homophonic texture may be used. This is created by singing in thirds, fourths or fifths. Unison (singing the same melody at the same time) and parallel motion (2 voices singing up or down in pitch but keeping the same interval between notes) are also used. You Tube Link: Circle of Life http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RXSyJ4CeUXo

African music has had a major influence on the development of popular music contributing rhythms, structures, melodic features and the use of improvisation. You Tube Link: Paul Simon You can call me Al http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HOiVaE-pKqM&fea ture=related The roots of Gospel music are in African culture. You Tube Link: Soweto Gospel Choir http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zd6sy5DKpxk South African Apartheid in the 1980s separated black and white South Africans. Labi Siffre wrote this song to express the emotions of the black South Africans. You Tube Link: Something inside so Strong http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7B-4Lsrx8IA&featu re=fvst Choral Singing Rhythmic Cycle Mbira Tama Talking Drum Djembe African Drumming is important in African Culture. It has been used for communication for hundreds of years. There are tama (talking drums) and djembe (single headed drum). They come in different sizes to produce different pitches. You Tube Link : Tama http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nnNvZWmsnTg&feature=related You Tube Link: Djembe http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VT2J1Ot9N5c African drumming and instrumental music makes use of repetition and ostinato (repeated pattern), cyclic structure (structures that go round and round like a loop), improvisation (making it up as you go along), polyrhythmic and polyphonic textures (rhythms and melodies that weave in and out of one another / cross over). Two examples of African melodic instruments are the Kora and the Mbira. You Tube Link: Kora http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=clgFw3RbI-k&feature=related You Tube Link: Mbira (Thumb Piano) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YbPVFMMIvqM&feature=related Kora Mbira Indian Music Raga Tala Drone Bollywood There are three common elements in Indian Music. The melody (raga) which is usually improvised from a scale called a rag, the drone (kharaja) which is usually an accompaniment of two notes a fifth apart in the bass and the rhythm (tala) which is organized into repeated cycles. Apart from the human voice, some of the common instruments found in classical Indian Music are: Sitar

(plucked string instrument) Sarangi (plucked and bowed string instrument) Bansuri (Indian bamboo flute) Tabla (2 drums) Shenai (Indian oboe style instrument) A rag (pronounced with a long a) is a scale that a melody can be improvised from. Rags are associated with different occasions even times of day. Marwa is an evening rag consisting of C, Db, E, F#, G, A, B, C (look at the Indian names for the notes: The tala is a rhythmic pattern that forms a basis for a set of repeating cycles. Sam is the first beat of the cycle, Matras are the individual beats in the cycle and Bols are improvised rhythms which contrast the main beat. You Tube Link: Tabla http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DrLN36uyZJ0&feature=related A raga performance contains all three of the elements: melody (based on a rag e.g. the Marwa rag), tala (rhythm played on the tabla drums) and drone (played on the lower strings of the sitar). The opening section is called the Alap and the final section is called the Gat. Indian Instruments You Tube Links: Sitar & Tabla http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hTPxq UtlLdo Sarangi & Table http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1PmM SDFyuAw&feature=related Bansuri http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7QuD Ex3_Ygo Shenai & Tabla http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WKG5 QCuap5E&feature=related Bollywood is the Indian Hollywood. Indian movies incorporate all types of Indian culture with expressive and flamboyant dances and music. One of the most famous Western films based around an Indian family is Slumdog Millionaire with its catchy soundtrack. You Tube Link: Jai Ho http://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=vRC4QrUwo9o Bhangra is traditionally a kind of folk music and dance. It is now associated with a fusion (mixture) between Western popular music styles and features of Indian Classical Music. Bhangra is characterized by the use of Indian Instruments such as the dhol (an Indian drum), Dhol (Indian repetitive rhythms and the Punjabi language (with typical shouts of hoi mixed with Western drum) instruments such as the synthesizer. You Tube Link: Dhol http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QmTFXzkD32s&feature=fvwrel

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