Black Codes - Council Rock School District

Black Codes - Council Rock School District

Black Codes Black codes were laws passed in Southern states during Reconstruction that greatly limited the freedom of former slaves. Examples of Black Codes: Promoted racial segregation in some places

Prohibited interracial marriage Jury service by blacks Court testimony by blacks against whites All codes had provisions in them which basically barred former slaves from leaving the plantation Violence in the South Race Riots were becoming widespread across the South. Johnsons call for leniency towards the ex-Confederate states were becoming absurd in the wake of such violence. Congress Breaks with the

President Congress bars Southern Congressional delegates. Joint Committee on Reconstruction created. February, 1866 President vetoed the Freedmens Bureau bill. March, 1866 Johnson vetoed the 1866 Civil Rights Act. Congress passed both bills over

Johnsons vetoes 1st in U. S. history!! Congress vs. Johnson Freedmens Bureau What was it? An organization that helped millions of southern freedmen left homeless and hungry after the war. It distributed food and clothing, as well as, set up hospitals and schools.

What did Johnson do? He vetoed an attempt to extend the organizations life. Congress vs. Johnson The Civil Rights Act of 1866 What was it? First civil rights law in U.S. history; it declared everyone born in the U.S. was a citizen with full civil rights. What did Johnson do and what happened as a result? Johnson vetoed the bill; however, Congress voted and passed it over his veto.

Radical (Congressional) Reconstruction The 1866 Bi-Election A referendum on Radical Reconstruction. Johnson made an ill-conceived propaganda tour around the country to push his plan. Republicans won a 3-1

majority in both houses and gained control of every northern state. Johnsons Swing around the Circle Elections of 1866 Citizens grew tired of

Johnsons calls for leniency with such violence in the South. As a result, the Radical Republicans won an overwhelming victory in the elections of 1866 Yo Radical Republicans!! We did it!!

Radical Plan for Readmission Civil authorities in the territories were subject to military supervision. Required new state constitutions, including black suffrage and ratification of the 13th and 14th Amendments. In March, 1867, Congress passed an act that authorized the military to enroll eligible black voters and begin the process of

constitution making. Reconstruction Acts of 1867 Military Reconstruction Act * Restart Reconstruction in the 10 Southern states that refused to ratify the 14th Amendment. *

Divide the 10 unreconstructed states into 5 military districts. Reconstruction Acts of 1867 Command of the Army Act * The President must issue all Reconstruction orders through the commander of the military.

Tenure of Office Act * The President could not remove any officials [esp. Cabinet members] without the Senates consent, if the position originally required Senate approval. Designed to protect radical members of Lincolns government.

A question of the constitutionality of this law. Edwin Stanton President Johnsons Impeachment Johnson removed Stanton in February, 1868. Johnson replaced generals in the field who were more sympathetic to Radical Reconstruction.

The House impeached him on February 24 before even drawing up the charges by a vote of 126 47! The Senate Trial 11 week trial. Johnson acquitted 35 to 19 (one short

of required 2/3s vote). If the President must step downthe office of President would be degraded.It would have revolutionized our splendid political fabric into a partisan Congressional autocracy.If Andrew Johnson were acquitted by a non partisan voteAmerica would pass the danger point of partisan rule and that intolerance which so characterizes the sway of great majorities and makes them dangerous. - SENATOR EDMUND ROSS

WHY DID ROSS VOTE NOT GUILTY? 14th Amendment Ratified in July, 1868. * Provide a constitutional guarantee of the rights and security of freed people. * Insure against neo-Confederate political

power. * Enshrine the national debt while repudiating that of the Confederacy. Southern states would be punished for denying the right to vote to black citizens! The

Grant Administration (1868-1876) The Election of 1868 Republican nominee General Ulysses S. Grant. Democrat nominee Horatio Seymour Grant won a slim victory due to the African- American vote

1868 Presidential Election Grant Administration Scandals Grant presided over an era of unprecedented growth and corruption. * Credit Mobilier Scandal.

* Whiskey Ring. * The Indian Ring. The Tweed Ring in NYC

William Marcy Tweed (notorious head of Tammany Halls political machine) [Thomas Nast crusading cartoonist/reporter] The Election of 1872 Rumors of corruption during Grants first term discredit Republicans. Horace Greeley runs as a Democrat/Liberal

Republican candidate. Greeley attacked as a fool and a crank. Greeley died on November 29, 1872! 1872 Presidential Election White Southern Republicans Many whites in the South felt that any southerner who helped the Republicans was a traitor.

Many were known as scalawags Scalawags- derogatory word/slang term to insult a white southern republican Northern Republicans Were strongly disliked by Southerners. Became known as carpetbaggers Carpetbaggers- northerners who came to the South to take

advantage of their troubles African Americans Earned the right to vote as well as run for office. Still faced many hardships including racism, poverty, and a continuing struggle for equality. Black Codes

Purpose: * Guarantee stable labor supply now that blacks were emancipated. * Restore preemancipation system of race relations.

Forced many blacks to become sharecroppers [tenant farmers]. Sharecropping Tenancy & the Crop Lien Furnishing Merchant Tenant Farmer Landowner System

Loan tools and seed up to 60% interest to tenant farmer to plant spring crop. Farmer also secures food, clothing, and other necessities on

credit from merchant until the harvest. Merchant holds lien {mortgage} on part of tenants Plants crop, harvests in autumn. Rents land to

tenant in exchange for to of tenant farmers future Turns over up to crop. of crop to land owner as payment of rent. Tenant gives remainder of crop to merchant in

payment of debt. 15th Amendment Ratified in 1870. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Womens rights groups were furious that they were not granted the vote! So Lets Review the Civil War Amendments 13th Amendment Abolished slavery 14th Amendment Extended equal citizenship to anyone born or naturalized in the United States and it also denied states the right to deprive anyone of life, liberty, or property without due

process of law. 15th Amendment The right to vote can not be taken away on account of race Ku Klux Klan Origins Goals Founded by Nathan Bedford

Forrest It grew quickly among all sorts of whites in the South Destroy the Republican Party Keep African Americans from voting Frighten African American leaders into submission Steps Against the Klan Federal Government

African Americans Passed the Enforcement Acts, They banned together in order which were 3 laws to protect themselves. empowering the combat WE terrorism with military force. GOT THIS!!!!

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