Biomolecules

Biomolecules

Vocabulary Week #2 1. monomer- single unit of a macromolecule. 2. polymer- large macromolecule comprised of many monomers. 3. catalyst- something that speeds up a reaction. 4. enzyme- protein that acts as a catalyst. 5. calibrate- to adjust precisely for a particular function. 6. saccharide- sugar 7. amino acid- monomer of a protein

8. covalent bond- strongest bond type, electrons shared Biological Molecules Why are we learning about inorganic molecules when Biology focuses on living organisms? EOC Level 2 EOC Level 3

SEQUENCE Place the steps of the scientific method in sequential order. Hint: Sequential is the adj. for sequence. Place post it on the yellow sheet with your first and last name. Bellringer 8-20-13 Create a Bar graph for the following Poverty

Guidelines for America 2013. Number in Household Annual Income 1 $11,490 2

$15,510 3 $19,530 4 $23,550 5

$27,579 6 $31,590 7 $35,610 8

$39,630 Levels of Organization Similarities to Biology While all organisms are different; all share some similiarities Composed of Cells Levels of Organization Use energy Respond to the Environment/

Stimuli Growth & Development Reproduction Adapt to Environment-Evolve Homeostasis Universal Genetic Code-DNA Atoms Atoms are the smallest unit of matter.

Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Atomic Composition Protons- positive charge, located in nucleus. Neutrons- neutral, located in nucleus.

Electrons-negative charge, located in electron shells around the nucleus. Figure 2.2 The Periodic Table (Part 1) Terminology Element- pure substance, made of

only one kind of atom Compound & Molecules- two or more elements held together by bonds Element Importance to Organisms 98% of living organisms are

composed of the following elements: Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Phosphorous Sulfur Chemical Bonds Chemical bond is when atoms bond together

to form a molecule. 3 Types of Chemical Bonds: Covalent bonds Ionic bonds Hydrogen bonding Bellringer 8-21-13 Covalent Bonds- atoms share electrons to form a

molecule Ionic Bonds- electrons are transferred between atoms. Opposites attract Cations Anions Hydrogen Bonds- weak bonds between water molecules. Assignment refer to p. 36, 38, 41

Draw the atomic structure of Carbon: Label protons, neutrons, electrons. Assignment Draw lines on your notebook paper to make six boxes. Write the name of the six major elements in organisms. Diagram the atomic nucleus and surrounding

electrons. Make sure the atom structure is accurate. Protons-green Neutrons-blue Electrons-red EOC Lev. 2 Graphing Practice Graph the following information using a line graph.

Bond Type (x axis) Covalent Bond Ionic Bond Hydrogen Bond Van der Waals Bond Strength (y axis) 50 7 3 1

Vocab Practice What is the difference between a monomer and a polymer? Water Held together by weak hydrogen bonds. 1. Cohesion

1. Cohesion-waters ability to stick to other water molecules. This causes: Surface tension Capillary action Walking on water 2. Adhesion 2. Adhesion-the ability of

water to stick to other substances. This causes: Capillary action Water moving up a trees vessels 3. Polarity Polarity= ability to dissolve= universal

solvent Think tea, KoolAid, sugar and salt water 4. Water Density Ice is less dense than liquid water= floats. Aquatic organisms

do not die in the winter. 5. High Specific Heat Takes a lot of energy to raise the temperature of water. Water will moderate climate

because of its high heat capacity. 6. High Heat of Vaporization Takes a lot of heat energy to change water from a liquid to a gas. This causes: Evaporative cooling/

sweating Anticipatory Set 1. What is the difference between cohesion and adhesion? 2. Which variable do you control: independent or dependent? Bellringer Graded Today- Week 1

1. ______- educated guess 2. ______- variable given to the experimental group, controlled by scientist 3. _____- measured by scientist, experiment outcome 4. _____- group that receives no independent variable 5. _____- group that receives independent variable 6. _____- explains how nature works, many hypotheses proven multiple times

7. _____-explains what nature does under certain conditions, but does not explain why (math laws) 8. _____- way scientists investigate Vocabulary Week #2 9. _____- single unit of a macromolecule. 10._____- large macromolecule comprised of many monomers. 11._____- something that speeds up a reaction. 12._____ protein that acts as a catalyst. 13.- to adjust precisely for a particular

function. 14._____- sugar 15._____ monomer of a protein 16. _____- strongest bond type, electrons shared 17._____- bond where electrons are transferred. Vocabulary Week #3 18. _____ compound that has carbon and hydrogen 19._____- compound that is missing carbon or hydrogen.

20. _____- atom that has a different number of neutrons. (C12, C14) 21. _____- two 22. _____- many TEST TOMORROWIT WILL BE TIMED 40 MINUTES. Vocabulary Week #3 1. organic- compound that has carbon and hydrogen

2. inorganic- compound that is missing carbon or hydrogen. 3. isotope- atom that has a different number of neutrons. (C12, C14) 4. di- two 5. poly- many TEST ON FRIDAYIT WILL BE TIMED 40 MINUTES. EOC Lev. 2

Scientific Method Practice A hunter wants to attract the largest buck to his food plot. He has heard of several ways of doing this, and wants to design an experiment to try out a method other than just planting corn. For our purposes he has 1000 acres with one water source through the whole property. Propose Hypothesis: Experimental Group: Control Group:

Dependent variable: Independent variable: pH Scale Water molecules have a strong affinity for one another, but can break apart. H2O H+ + hydrogen water

ion OHhydroxide More H = acid More OH = base ion pH Scale

Each number represents a jump in ten. Buffers can be added to maintain homeostas is.

pH is a Log scale pH Practice pH 1-2:___ pH 4-8: ___ pH 3-7: ___ pH 5-10: ___ Calculate pH differences in H concentration pH 2- pH 5

pH 1- pH 3 pH 1- pH 2 pH 10- pH 14 pH 3- pH 8 pH 3- pH 7 pH 7 pH 10

pH 5 pH 10 pH 1- pH 14 pH 1- pH 11 Inquiry Lab #2: pH Create a table as shown below to record Substance substance & pH.

pH Create a pH scale, and record your substances. Must have 10 substances on scale. Answer the following: 1. Why do most of the food substances measured have a pH close to 7. 2. Label acids, Bases, Neutral, 3. What does pH measure?

4. Compare acidic and basic solutions in terms of their H+ and OH- ion concentrations. Bellringer 8-28-13 SUMMARIZE the difference between a monomer and a polymer? SUMMARIZE the difference between an acid and a base.

Name the property of water responsible for: Evaporative cooling (sweating)= Climate moderation= EOC Level 3 & 3 EOC Level 3 & Level 2 EOC Level 2

Elements present in your body . . . . . . If carbon is present then the compound is considered ___________. Four Classes of Organic Biomolecules

Carbohydrates Lipids or fats Proteins Nucleic Acids Carbohydrates Contain C, H, O in a 1:2:1 ratio. Function: provide energy in plants and animals cell support in plants. Carbohydrates are the most readily available

energy source when ingested. Main energy supply. Carbohydrates When carbs are broken down, energy is released as ATP. If the energy is unneeded, then the glucose is stored: Glycogen: in the liver or muscles.

Cellulose and starch: in plants. Carbohydrate Structure 1 carbohydrate = ______________ Glucose- most important, plant sugar Fructose- fruit sugar Galactose-milk sugar When two monosaccharides combine they create a_______________ sucrose table sugar = glucose + fructose lactose milk sugar = glucose + galactose

maltose malt sugar = glucose + glucose Many monosaccharides = ________________ After ingesting carbohydrates, where do they go? Carbohydrate Digestion Animation Carbohydrate Structure Carbohydrates can be isomers: same chemical formula, but different structural formula.

Figure 3.15 Disaccharides Are Formed by Glycosidic Linkages (Part 2) ThiThis is cellobiose, a subunit of cellulose, humans dont have the enzymes to break this down, but cows do. To us it is merely roughage. Cellulose is a very stable glucose polymer, and is the principle component of cell walls. Dehydration Synthesis aka Polymerization Process by which complex carbohydrates are

made. From the name it can be inferred that water is removed, resulting in a glycosidic bond. Examples of polysaccharides: Starch-stored excess plant sugars Cellulose-plant cell wall formation Glycogen-stored excess animal sugar. To break apart carbohydrates hydrolysis must occur, i.e. the addition of water. http://nhscience.lonestar.edu/biol/dehydrat/dehydr

at.html Lipids Lipid monomer: glycerol molecule + 3 fatty acid molecules . Contain C, H, O Long term energy Fats, oils, wax, steroids cholesterol Nonpolar= do not dissolve

Figure 3.18 Synthesis of a Triglyceride Energy and Calories Calorie is a unit of energy. To sustain life: women 60cal/hr = 1440cal/day men 70cal/hr = 1680cal/day Carbs have 4cal/g

Fats have 9cal/g Need to eat from all groups to stay healthy. Inquiry Lab #2: Calculating Food Calories Use the food labels around the room to gather calorie information. Calculate cal./g cal./100g Complete bar graph with the food type and

calories per serving. Remember TALKS! Lipids There are three types of fatty acids: Saturated fatty acid- all C-C are single, max number of H atoms, solid at room temp., ex. butter and meat fat Unsaturated fatty acid-C-C are double or triple, usually liquid at room temp., ex. Peanut, corn, and olive oils Polyunsaturated fatty acid- many C-C double or

triple bonds, ex. Canola and vegetable oil. Bellringer 9-3-13 Create a pie graph using the following questions. graph state your favorite kind of vehicle graph state your favorite type of pizza topping 1/8 graph state your least favorite school lunch

1/8 state your favorite color 1/8 state your ideal job 1/8 state your favorite season Level 3 Level 2 Carbohydrate & Lipid Review Carbohydrates Lipids

Elements present: Elements Present: _________ Function: ________________ Source: __________________ Examples: ________________

_________ Function: ________________ Source: __________________ Examples:_______________ _ Exit Slip 9-3-12 Create a model of a carbohydrate

and a lipid as shown on your sheet. Make sure that it is initialed for credit. Bellringer 9-4-13 GENERALIZE the similarities between carbohydrates and lipids. GENERALIZE their differences. 1. 2.

3. 4. 5. Complete your carbohydrate model. Complete your lipid molecule. Exit Slip due today. Grade Conferences Today Homework Due Tomorrow. Proteins Contain: C, H, O, N, P, and S

Monomers of proteins are amino acids. Amino acids link by peptide bonds to form polypeptide chains. Proteins must fold to be functional. Essential Amino Acids Over 20 amino acids 11 non-essential 9 essential These 9 are essential because

they cannot be synthesized by the body and must be supplemented. Phenyalanine Valine Threonine Tryptophan Isoleucine Methionine Leucine

Lysine Histidine Proteins Function of Proteins: antibodies (immunity) enzymes cell structure energy storage. Can be found in meats/muscle, collagen (in cells), keratin (hair and nails).

Vocabulary List #4 1. 2. 3. 4. Monosaccharide- one sugar Disaccharide- two sugars Polysaccharide- many sugars Lipid- made of many units of glycerol + 3 fatty acids

5. Enzyme- protein that acts as a catalyst 6. Metabolism- all chemical reactions in the body 7. Catabolism- metabolism that involves breaking down e.g. food 8. Anabolism- metabolism that involved Level 2 Enzymes Enzymes are proteins that are catalysts that

speed up chemical reactions in cells. ase= enzymes Enzymes form an enzyme-substrate complex , and speed up catabolic processes. Enzyme Animation Metabolism Metabolism = chemical reactions in your body Catabolism= breakdown Anabolism= building up

The energy it takes to get a chemical reaction started is called the activation energy. Some reactions take a long time; therefore, need a catalyst. Catalyst-substance that speeds up the reaction Catabolic Anabolic Animations Body Tract Animation ADAM Animation 40s Food Digestion

Enzymes Sketch Title the Page: Types of Metabolism, and divide sheet in 1/2 Draw Anabolism and Catabolism Be sure to include these terms on both drawings: Substrate Product Active site Enzyme Enzyme-substrate complex

Exit Slip 9-9-13 A Vocabulary List #4 1. 2. 3. 4. ___________- one sugar

___________- two sugars ___________- many sugars ___________- made of many units of glycerol + 3 fatty acids 5. ___________- protein that acts as a catalyst 6. ___________- all chemical reactions in the body 7. ___________- metabolism that involves breaking down e.g. food 8. ___________- metabolism that involved Quiz Tomorrow Review

Elements in a carbohydrate: ____________ Elements in a lipid: ____________ Function of a Carbohydrate: _____________ Function of a lipid: _______________ Monomer of a Carbohydrate: _________________ Monomer of a lipid: ___________________________ Carbohydrates are polar/nonpolar Lipids are polar/nonpolar

Energy and Calories Calorie is a unit of energy. To sustain life: women 60cal/hr = 1440cal/day men 70cal/hr = 1680cal/day Carbs have 4cal/g Fats have 9cal/g Need to eat from all groups to stay healthy.

So which exercise is good for you? Activity 100 # 150# 200# Biking 6mph

160 240 312 Biking 12mph 270 410

534 Jumping Rope (10 min.) 500 750 100 Running

5.5mph 440 660 962 Running 7 mph 610

920 1230 Running 10mph 850 1280 1664

Swimming 25yd./min. 185 275 358 Swimming 50 yd./min.

325 500 650 Tennis Singles 265 400

535 Walking 2mph 160 240 312 Walking 3mph

210 320 416 Walking 4.5mph 295 440

572 After you SwallowWhere does it go? Digestion Animation Lipid Metabolism Nucleic Acids Contain: C, H, O, N, P Monomer :

nucleotide which consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base. Two Types of Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA deoxyribose=sugar DNA ribose=sugar RNA Question of the Day

What are the four classes of biomolecules? What are you planning on doing over Thanksgiving break? Do your plans relate to your aspirations you wrote down on the first day?

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