Biomes and Climates IV By: Angelo Louis N Escario Tundra netdna-cdn.com TUNDRA Cold Less than 5 C Precipitation (mostly form of snow)
Lichens and mosses Reindeer Oil and gas developement Airborne pollutant World Distribution ALPINE and ARCTIC TUNDRA ALPINE
Located in mountain through out the world High altitude Growing season 180 days Night time temperature is freezing The soil is well drained The plants are the same as the arctic Animal are also adapted ARCTIC Located in Northern Hemisphere
Encircling the north pole The growing season are up to 50-60 It has a frozen subsoil called permafrost There are 1,700 kinds of plants in tundra Plants are together to reduce cold climate and protected by snow during winter Plants reproduce budding than sexually by other plants Many animals hibernate during winter Reptiles and Amphibians are few
Desert http://i.imgur.com DESSERT Climate From 32 F at night and 113 F at day. Plants Cactus, shrubs, Cardn, Camel
Thorn Tree, Prickly pear, Saguaro. Animals Snakes, lizards, tarantulas, dingo, porcupines, coyotes. Location North and South America, Africa, Asia and Australia. Threats of Desert Global Warming Allergies in airborne pollens
Coccidioides immitis Off road vehicle use Irrigated Hot and Dry Desert Temperature exhibits daily extreme Temperature is 20- 25 C The extreme maximum ranges from 43.5-49 C Rainfall is lowest on the Atacama Desert of Chile, where it
averages less than 1.5 cm. Some years are even rainless. Inland Sahara also receives less than 1.5 cm a year. Soils are shallow and rocky Canopy in most deserts is very rare Plants are mainly ground-hugging shrubs and short woody trees. Leaves are "replete" (fully supported with nutrients) with water-conserving characteristics. They tend to be small, thick and covered with a thick cuticle (outer layer). In the cacti, the leaves are much-reduced (to spines) and photosynthetic activity is restricted to the stems.
Some plants open their stomata (microscopic openings in the epidermis of leaves that allow for gas exchange) only at night. Semiarid desert The major deserts of this type include the sagebrush of Utah, Montana and Great Basin. They also include the Nearctic realm (North America, Newfoundland, Greenland, Russia, Europe and northern Asia). The summers are moderately long and dry, and like hot deserts, the winters normally bring low concentrations of rainfall. Summer temperatures usually average between 21-27 C.
Cool nights help both plants and animals by reducing moisture loss from transpiration, sweating and breathing. Furthermore, condensation of dew caused by night cooling may equal or exceed the rainfall received by some deserts. As in the hot desert, rainfall is often very low and/or concentrated. The average rainfall ranges from 2-4 cm annually. The soil can range from sandy and fine-textured to loose rock fragments, gravel or sand. The spiny nature of many plants in semiarid deserts provides protection in a hazardous environment Coastal desert
These deserts occur in moderately cool to warm areas such as the Nearctic and Neotropical realm. A good example is the Atacama of Chile. The average summer temperature ranges from 13-24 C; winter temperatures are 5 C or below. The maximum annual temperature is about 35 C and the minimum is about -4 C. In Chile, the temperature ranges from -2 to 5 C in July and 21-25 C in January. The average rainfall measures 8-13 cm in many areas. The maximum annual precipitation over a long period of years has been 37 cm with a minimum of 5 cm. The soil is fine-textured with a moderate salt content. It is fairly porous
with good drainage longitudinal ridges and grooves. When water is available, the deep and ridges close together. The plants living in this type of desert include the salt bush, buckwheat bush Some animals have specialized adaptations for dealing with the desert heat and lack of water. Some insects lay eggs that remain dormant until the environmental conditions are suitable for hatching. The fairy shrimps also lay dormant eggs. Cold desert Lichen growing on Torgerson Island, Antarctica; kangaroo rat. These
deserts are characterized by cold winters with snowfall and high overall rainfall throughout the winter and occasionally over the summer. They occur in the Antarctic, Greenland and the Nearctic realm. They have short moist, and moderately warm summers with fairly long, cold winters. The mean winter temperature is between -2 to 4 C and the mean summer temperature is between 21-26 C. The winters receive quite a bit of snow. The mean annual precipitation ranges from 15-26 cm. Annual precipitation has reached a maximum of 46 cm and a minimum of 9 cm. The heaviest rainfall of the spring is usually in April or May. In some areas, rainfall can be heavy in autumn. The soil is heavy, silty, and salty. It contains alluvial fans where soil is relatively
porous and drainage is good so that most of the salt has been leached out. Plant heights vary between 15 cm and 122 cm. The main plants are deciduous, most having spiny leaves. Widely distributed animals are jack rabbits, kangaroo rats, kangaroo mice, pocket mice, grasshopper mice, and antelope ground squirrels. REFERENCES http://polarfield.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/toolik-013.jpg http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/tundra.htm http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/glossary/gloss5/biome/tundra.html
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