Biol 155 Human Physiology

Biol 155 Human Physiology

Digestive System Anatomy Digestive tract Accessory organs

Alimentary tract or canal GI tract Primarily glands Regions

Mouth or oral cavity Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Anus

Digestive Tract Histology Digestive System Regulation Nervous regulation Involves enteric nervous system

Types of neurons: sensory, motor, interneurons Coordinates peristalsis and regulates local reflexes

Chemical regulation Production of hormones Gastrin, secretin

Production of paracrine chemicals Histamine Help local reflexes in ENS control digestive environments as pH levels Peritoneum and Mesenteries

Peritoneum Visceral: Covers organs Parietal: Covers interior surface of body wall

Retroperitoneal: Behind peritoneum as kidneys, pancreas, duodenum Mesenteries Routes which vessels and nerves pass from body wall to organs

Greater omentum Lesser omentum Oral Cavity Mouth or oral cavity

Lips (labia) and cheeks Palate: Oral cavity roof Vestibule: Space between lips or

cheeks and alveolar processes Oral cavity proper Hard and soft Palatine tonsils Tongue: Involved in speech, taste, mastication, swallowing Teeth

Two sets Primary, deciduous, milk: Childhood Permanent or secondary: Adult

(32) Types Incisors, canine, premolar and molars Tooth structure: Salivary Glands

Produce saliva Prevents bacterial infection Lubrication Contains salivary amylase

Breaks down starch Three pairs Parotid: Largest Submandibular Sublingual:

Smallest Pharynx and Esophagus Pharynx

Nasopharynx Oropharynx: Transmits food normally Laryngopharynx: Transmits food normally Esophagus

Transports food from pharynx to stomach Passes through esophageal hiatus (opening) of diaphragm and ends at stomach Hiatal hernia

Sphincters Upper Lower Deglutition (Swallowing) Three phases

Voluntary Bolus of food moved by tongue from oral cavity to pharynx Pharyngeal Reflex: Upper esophageal sphincter relaxes, elevated pharynx opens the esophagus, food pushed into esophagus

Esophageal Reflex: Epiglottis is tipped posteriorly, larynx elevated to prevent food from passing into larynx Phases of Deglutition (Swallowing)

Functions Ingestion: Introduction of food into stomach Mastication: Chewing Propulsion Deglutition: Swallowing Peristalsis: Moves material through digestive tract

Stomach Anatomy: Openings Gastroesopha geal: To

esophagus Pyloric: To duodenum Regions Cardiac Fundus Body

Pyloric Stomach Histology: Layers Serosa or visceral peritoneum: Outermost

Muscularis: Three layers Outer longitudinal Middle circular Inner oblique

Submucosa Mucosa Stomach Histology Rugae: Folds in stomach when empty Gastric pits: Openings for gastric glands

Contain cells Surface mucous: Mucus

Mucous neck: Mucus Parietal: Hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor Chief: Pepsinogen Endocrine: Regulatory hormones Hydrochloric Acid Production Phases of Gastric Secretion

Movements in Stomach Small Intestine Site of greatest amount of digestion and absorption Divisions

Modifications Duodenum Jejunum Ileum: Peyers patches

or lymph nodules Circular folds or plicae circulares, villi, lacteal, microvilli Cells of mucosa Absorptive, goblet, granular, endocrine Small Intestine Secretions

Mucus Digestive enzymes

Protects against digestive enzymes and stomach acids Disaccharidases: Break down disaccharides to monosaccharides Peptidases: Hydrolyze peptide bonds Nucleases: Break down nucleic acids Duodenal glands Stimulated by vagus nerve, secretin, chemical

or tactile irritation of duodenal mucosa Duodenum and Pancreas Duodenum Anatomy and Histology Liver Lobes

Major: Left and right Minor: Caudate and quadrate Ducts Common hepatic

Cystic From gallbladder Common bile Joins pancreatic duct at hepatopancreatic ampulla

Functions of the Liver Bile production Storage

Hepatocytes remove ammonia and convert to urea Phagocytosis Glycogen, fat, vitamins, copper and iron Nutrient interconversion Detoxification

Salts emulsify fats, contain pigments as bilirubin Kupffer cells phagocytize worn-out and dying red and white blood cells, some bacteria Synthesis Albumins, fibrinogen, globulins, heparin, clotting factors

Blood and Bile Flow Duct System Gallbladder Bile is stored and concentrated

Stimulated by cholecystokinin and vegal stimulation Dumps into small intestine Production of gallstones possible Drastic dieting with rapid weight loss Pancreas Anatomy

Endocrine Exocrine Pancreatic islets produce insulin and

glucagon Acini produce digestive enzymes Regions: Head, body, tail Secretions Pancreatic juice

(exocrine) Trypsin Chymotrypsin Carboxypeptidase Pancreatic amylase Pancreatic lipases

Enzymes that reduce DNA and ribonucleic acid Bicarbonate Ion Production Gastric hormones: Movement in small intestine:

Mixing: Segmental contraction that occurs in small intestine Secretion: Lubricate, liquefy, digest Digestion: Mechanical and chemical Absorption: Movement from tract into circulation or lymph Elimination: Waste products removed from body

Large Intestine: Extends from ileocecal junction to anus Consists of cecum, colon, rectum, anal canal Movements sluggish (18-24 hours) Large Intestine

Cecum Colon Ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid Rectum

Blind sac, vermiform appendix attached Straight muscular tube Anal canal

Internal anal sphincter (smooth muscle) External anal sphincter (skeletal muscle) Hemorrhoids: Vein enlargement or inflammation Secretions of Large Intestine Mucus provides protection

Parasympathetic stimulation increases rate of goblet cell secretion Pumps Exchange of bicarbonate ions for chloride ions Exchange of sodium ions for hydrogen ions Bacterial actions produce gases called flatus

Histology of Large Intestine Movement in Large Intestine Mass movements

Local reflexes in enteric plexus Gastrocolic: Initiated by stomach Duodenocolic: Initiated by duodenum Defecation reflex

Common after meals Distension of the rectal wall by feces Defecation Usually accompanied by voluntary movements to expel feces through abdominal cavity pressure caused by inspiration Reflexes in

Colon and Rectum: Digestion, Absorption, Transport Digestion Breakdown of food molecules for absorption into circulation Mechanical: Breaks large food particles to small

Chemical: Breaking of covalent bonds by digestive enzymes Absorption and transport Molecules are moved out of digestive tract and into circulation for distribution throughout body

portal triad Liver Histology Figure 24.20a, b 3. Architecture of the Hepatic Parenchyma The hepatic lobule is the structural unit of the liver. Portal vein Bile duct Sinusoids

Central vein Liver cells (Hepatocyte Portal area Hepatic artery Bile each day around 600 ml of bile is produced

Bile acid Phospholipids Cholesterol Bilirubin Waste products Electrolytes Mucin Functions of the Liver

Bile production Storage

Hepatocytes remove ammonia and convert to urea Phagocytosis Glycogen, fat, vitamins, copper and iron Nutrient interconversion Detoxification

Salts emulsify fats, contain pigments as bilirubin Kupffer cells phagocytize worn-out and dying red and white blood cells, some bacteria Synthesis Albumins, fibrinogen, globulins, heparin, clotting factors Exocrine Pancreas

Enzymes Trypsinogen Chymotrysinogen

Carboxypeptidas es Pro-elastase Phospholipase pancreatic lipase Pancreatic amylase Bicarbonate Ion Production Lipoproteins

Types Chylomicrons VLDL LDL

Enter lymph Transports cholesterol to cells HDL Transports cholesterol from

cells to liver Water and Ions: Water Can move in either direction across wall of small intestine

depending on osmotic gradients Ions Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate are actively transported Effects of Aging

Decrease in mucus layer, connective tissue, muscles and secretions Increased susceptibility to infections and toxic agents Ulcerations and cancers

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