BIO 342 HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY - Wofford College

BIO 342 HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY - Wofford College

Friday, 23 September Chapter 6 Nervous System A and B Lab next week: Four more cases in endocrinology Test # 1 Monday, October 3. Test # Study Guide Physiology Peer Tutors (free) via [email protected] Arsalaan Salehani, Marshal Diven, Ashlee Price, Stephanie Hoffer, Sean Nguyen, and David Wynn. 1QQ # 8 for 8:30 1) A woman presents with elevated plasma levels of ACTH and Cortisol. Which other symptoms are expected: a)Low levels of plasma fatty acids

b)Heightened resistance to infection c)High blood pressure d)Enlargement of facial bones and hands and feet e)Random episodes of intense sweating with no apparent trigger. 1QQ # 8 for 9:30 1) During a visit with her physician, a woman complains of random episodes of intense sweating with no apparent trigger, high susceptibility to infection, and very irregular menstrual cycles. She has elevated blood pressure ( 140/90) and elevated levels of fatty acids in her plasma. You realize these symptoms are characteristic of a)menopause

b)acromegaly c)Primary adrenal insufficiency d)Hypercortisolemia e)Primary hypothyroidism. Vasopressin Cytokines from immune cells

CRH from Hypothalamus S8 Physical trauma Prolonged exposure to cold Prolonged intense exercise Infection Sleep deprivation Pain

Fright Emotional distress ACTH from Ant. Pit Cortisol secretion from Adrenal Cortex Mobilize fuel from muscle & adipose tissue

Suppress non-essential functions (reproduction & growth) Suppress inflammatory & immune responses Potentiates response to EPI (vascular smooth muscle) A though-provoking chapter question: Suppose a long distance hiker has been backpacking 12-15 miles per day with a 40

pound backpack for several weeks. Blood tests reveal her levels of vasopressin, cortisol, aldosterone, and ACTH to be higher than that from a blood sample before she began the trek. How does each of these hormones contribute to her good health during this extended period of moderate stress?

A likely take-home question for Test # 1 S 10 Communication in The Vertebrate NS Reflexes require some part of the CNS (i.e. frog lab) Blood pressure

Blood gases and pH Muscle stretch Pain Peripheral nerves are mixed (have afferent & efferent axons) Signaling over short and long distances Skin temperature Hair movement

Light, Taste, Odor Touch, Pain, Temperature, Etc. Dimensions of neurons S 11 If Nodes of Ranvier are 1 mm apart: How many Schwann cells to myelinate the 2 meters of a sensory axon from hoof to dorsal root

ganglion near spinal cord? How many oligodendries to myelinate the 2 meters of the sensory axon ascending in spinal cord to brain? Sensory (afferent) neurons from hoof to brain Descending neurons

(interneurons) from brain to spinal cord Fig. 06.03 S 12 Orthograde = anterograde retrograde

Axonal Transport S 13 Orthograde = Anterograde = from soma to terminals slow1-2 mm/day fast ..200-400 mm/day (kinesin) Retrograde = from terminals to soma fast.200-400 mm/day (dynein)

What gets transported and why? Axonal transport is too slow for rapid signaling, so Who Cares? Alayna Davis October 1992 Age 5 October 31, 1992

October 1998 Regeneration in CNS? So how can PNS axon regenerate and what prevents CNS axons from regenerating? Bioelectricity is chemistry + physics

Membrane potentials Ohms law Resting Membrane Potential The Nernst Equation The Goldman Equation Who

Cares? Cortical vesicle exocytosis during fertilization leads to envelope elevationA, prior to fertilization (left), the proteinaceous vitelline coat of the sea urchin egg of Lytechinus pictus is not visible in this differential interference contrast image. Zimmerberg J et al. J Physiol 1999;520:15-21 1999 by The Physiological Society

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