Inequality by the Numbers: LIS Data: A Resource for Inequality Research June 10, 2016 Janet Gornick @ LIS We gather income datasets, based on household surveys, from a large number of countries; we harmonize them, and we make them available to researchers around the world. We provide harmonized microdata; that enables researchers to ask a vast range of questions e.g., on income inequality, poverty, labor market disparities and to tailor their analyses to their precise needs. We are widely recognized as world leaders in data harmonization; we regularly advise projects (e.g., at OECD, World Bank, ECB) on how ex post harmonization can and should be done. We are in a growth spurt, recently adding several more countries (especially middle-income countries) and new blocks of data (most recently, data on assets and debt). Our mission To enable, facilitate, promote, and conduct crossnational comparative research on socio-economic outcomes and on the institutional factors that shape those outcomes. LIS: an overview LIS: Cross-National Data Center
parent organization (founded 1983) located in Luxembourg independent, chartered non-profit organization cross-national, participatory governance acquires, harmonizes, and disseminates data for research venue for research, conferences, and user training LIS Center @ Graduate Center - CUNY satellite office (founded 2006) located at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York administrative, managerial, development support to parent office venue for research, teaching, PhD supervision, and public programs What we do Step 1. We identify appropriate datasets. Data must be high-quality. Step 2. We negotiate with each data provider. Step 3. We collect, harmonize and document the data. LIS data experts harmonize the data into a common, cross-national template, and create comprehensive documentation.
Data harmonisation at LIS: an overview Harmonisatio n Data harmonisation at LIS: an overview The origins of the LIS data Harmonisatio n Data harmonisation at LIS: an overview The origins of the LIS data Harmonisatio n The harmonisation process Data harmonization at LIS: an overview The ingredients of LIS: the original datasets Harmonisatio n
The harmonization process The final output: LIS Database, LWS Database What we do (cont). Step 4. We double-check the harmonized data and create some national-level indicators. Step 5. We make the harmonized microdata available to researchers via remote execution, and other user-friendly pathways. LIS: data, products, and services LIS and LWS Databases Luxembourg Income Study Database (LIS) First and largest available database of harmonized income data, available at the household and person levels In existence since 1983
Data mostly start in 1980, some go back to the 1960s (recollected every 3-5 years) Approx 50 countries 300 datasets Used to study: poverty; income inequality; labor market outcomes; policy effects Luxembourg Wealth Study Database (LWS) First available database of harmonized wealth data, available at the household level In existence since 2007 13 countries, 11 datasets, more coming up in near future Newly released 2016 Used to study: household assets, debt, and expenditures; wealth portfolios; policy effects Current Coverage of High- and Middle-Income Countries in LIS and LWS Databases approximately 65% of world population and 84% of world GDP High-income countries: (33) Upper-middle-income countries: Lower-middle-income countries:
(12) (4) Australia Greece Slovenia Brazil Panama Egypt Austria Iceland South Korea China Paraguay Georgia Belgium
Ireland Spain Colombia Peru Guatemala Canada Israel Sweden Dominican Republic Romania India Chile * Italy Switzerland Hungary
Serbia Cyprus (LWS only) Japan Taiwan Mexico South Africa Czech Republic Luxembourg United Kingdom Denmark Netherlands United States Estonia Norway Uruguay
Finland Poland France Russia Germany Slovak Republic * Dataset in-house, but not yet available for use. Users, products, services Thousands of data users - and growing remote execution enables data use around the world tools for non-technical users Pedagogical activities training workshops self-teaching materials Research activities and support visiting scholar programs working paper series (700+) research conferences authored and edited books, e.g.: Research based on the LIS/LWS data:
some illustrations LIS provides evidence for comparative research on socio-economic outcomes assessing income inequality measuring poverty comparing employment outcomes analyzing assets and debt Assessing Income Inequality Inequality and Redistribution Source: Janet Gornick and Branko Milanovic. 2015. Income Inequality in the United States in Cross-National Perspective: Redistribution Revisited. LIS Center Research Brief. Recent trends -1 Is inequality rising in middle- and high-income countries? Inequality Trends in Comparative Perspective Gini Coefficients of Disposable Income 1980 to 2004 Gornick and Jntti (from Introduction, in Gornick and Jntti, eds., 2013)
Recent trends -2a Is inequality rising in middle- and high-income countries? Updated to include changes just before and during the Great Recession Four inequality measures 2001, 2004, 2007, 2010 Milanovic, Gornick, Jntti forthcoming Recent trends -2b Is inequality rising in middle- and high-income countries? Updated to include changes just before and during the Great Recession Four inequality measures 2001, 2004, 2007, 2010 Milanovic, Gornick, Jntti Recent trends -3 Has the middle been hollowing out?
4 Change in the Income Share of the Bottom, Middle and Top Income Groups between around 1985 and around 2004 (percentage points) 2 Atkinson and Brandolini 0 (from Chapter 2, in Gornick and Jntti, eds., 2013) -2 -4 DK IT TW DE LU FR NO MX CA SE FI AT PL US UK Bottom20% Middle 60%
Top 20% Measuring Poverty Real Income Levels of Children United States Norway 100 Switzerland Switzerland 92 Canada 157 87 146 Sweden 137 137
France 77 Denmark Finland 76 Finland 131 Belgium 71 France 126 United Kingdom 71 Canada 126
United Kingdom 54 0 103 United States 61 Sweden 114 Australia 63 Netherlands 120 80 As Percent of High US Child Income 100
120 0 89 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 As Percent of Low US Child Income Source: Timothy Smeeding and Lee Rainwater. 2002. Comparing Living Standards Across Nations: Real Incomes at the Top, the Bottom and the Middle. LIS Working Paper 266. Real income levels in the middle (Kenworthy 2013) Trends in Real Incomes of Middle-Income (P25, P50, and P75) Households, late-1970s to mid-2000s (from Chapter 3, in Gornick and Jntti, eds., 2013)
Contribution of womens employment/earnings (Harkness 2013) Income Inequality under Three Counterfactuals, around 2004 (from Chapter 7, in Gornick and Jntti, eds., 2013) Half Squared Coefficient of Variation Actual Norway Denmark Sweden Finland Netherlands Luxembourg Austria Germany Australia Canada UK France US Spain Ireland Italy Greece I2 0.122
0.129 0.137 0.178 0.188 0.194 0.195 0.221 0.227 0.228 0.244 0.245 0.282 0.295 0.301 0.383 0.459 Counterfactual where No Women Work I2 % change 0.179 47% 0.187 45% 0.179 31% 0.246 38% 0.259
-13% 0.279 -1% 0.257 -13% 0.268 -11% 0.365 -5% 0.44 -4% Comparing Employment Outcomes Gender Gaps in Earnings by Education Level Source: Paula England, Janet Gornick, and Emily Shafer. 2012. Womens Employment, Education, and the Gender Gap in 17 Countries. Monthly Labor Review (April): 20-29. Analyzing Assets and Debt Older Womens Income and Asset Poverty 100% 90% 31 80% 36 41 43
Neither Income nor Asset Poor 43 50 70% 16% Income Poor 60% 50% 39% Income Poor 4 12 12 18% Income Poor 5 13
19% Income Poor 26% Income Poor 4 15 20% Income Poor 40% 30% 45% Asset Poor 20% 10% 0% 18 10
Income Poor AND Asset Poor 5 64% Asset Poor 27 Income Poor, NOT Asset Poor 8 55% Asset Poor 52 42 52% Asset Poor 39% Asset
Poor 37 34 Italy Sweden 56% Asset Poor 38 18 United States Finland Germany United Kingdom Source: Janet Gornick, Eva Sierminska, Timothy Smeeding. 2009. The Income and Wealth Packages of Older Women in Cross-National Perspective. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences 64B(3): 402-414. Asset Poor, NOT Income Poor
Combining LIS data with other data sources micro-micro (merging, statistical matching) macro-micro (nesting micro in macro) macro-macro (unit of analysis: country-year) Thank You Janet Gornick
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