AutoCAD Architecture 2008: Part I: Getting Started

AutoCAD Architecture 2008: Part I: Getting Started

Chapter 1 Overview of Todays Special Education Exceptional Lives, 6e ISBN: 0135027012 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 1 Objectives At the end of this chapter you should be able to: Describe students who are in special education and the professionals that work with them. Identify and define the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Articulate other federal laws that benefit students with disabilities. Explain the outcomes these laws have helped achieve for students. Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer 2 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Values to Guide Teaching (Figure 1.1)

Envisioning Great Expectations Enhancing Positive Contributions Building on Strengths Becoming Self-Determined Expanding Relationships Ensuring Full Citizenship Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer 3 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Who Are the Students? Approximately 6 million students ages 6 - 21 369,596 infants and toddlers or 2.2% of U.S. infants and toddlers 670,750 preschool children or 5.8% of the preschool-aged

population Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer 4 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Profile of Special Education Approximately 2/3 boys and 1/3 girls in special education Approximately 1.8% to 18 % of students in the gifted and talented category in different states- Overall, 6.4 % of the school population Females slightly outnumber males in gifted and talented category

Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer 5 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Students 6 to 21: 2007 Categories of Disabilities (Figure 12) 9% 8% 8% 46% 10% 19% Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer 6 Specific Learning disabilities Speech Language Impairments

Intellectual Disability Emotional/Behavio ral disorders Other Health Impairments Other Disabilities combined 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Who Are the Students? Labeling Allows students with disabilities to receive services Labels may be stigmatizing or result in discrimination View children by their abilities not disabilities Use person-first language Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays

Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer 7 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Who Are Special Education Personnel? Special education is a high-demand occupation Districts often have unfilled teaching positions Many different professionals work with School Supervisors/administrators social workers students with disabilities: Occupational therapists Physical therapists Recreation and therapeutic specialists Paraprofessionals Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael

Wehmeyer Psychologists Diagnostic/evaluation staff Audiologists Speech therapists Additional specialists 8 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Overview of the Law and Special Education Two Types of Discrimination Previous discrimination: Exclusion Misclassification Consequences of Brown v. Board of Education (1954) Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer 9

2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Judicial Decisions and Legislation Court Cases Mills v. Washington, DC, Board of Education and Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Citizens [PARC] v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania The courts ordered school districts to: Provide a free, appropriate public education to all students with disabilities Educate students with disabilities in the same schools and basically same programs as students without disabilities Put into place procedural safeguards so that students can challenge schools that do not live up to the courts orders. These decisions led to families advocating for a federal law to guarantee rights and Congress to act Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer 10 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Introduction to IDEA IDEA(originally called Education of All Handicapped Students Act or PL 94-142) was first enacted in 1975 Original intent: Open schools to all students with disabilities and ensure they had a chance to benefit from special education Current focus: Provide a free, appropriate public education to all students with disabilities Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer 11 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Span of Special Education

IDEA provides services from birth to age 21 (historically was from ages 6 to 18) IDEA has three sections: Part A sets out Congresss intent and national policy to provide a free appropriate public education to all students with disabilities Part B serves children ages 3 to 21 Part C serves students ages birth to 2 Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer 12 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Special Education and Students Eligibility

Eligibility is based on need Special education services are provided wherever there are students with disabilities Classrooms Students homes Hospitals and institutions Other settings Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer 13 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Related Services (Figure 13)

Assistive Technology Audiology Counseling services Early identification Family training, counseling, and home visits Health services Medical services Occupational therapy Orientation and mobility services Parent counseling and training Physical therapy Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer

14 Psychological services Recreation and therapeutic recreation Rehabilitative counseling services School health services Service coordination services Social work services in schools Speech pathology and speech-language pathology Transportation and related costs Vision Services 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Students Eligibility Part B 12 disability categories under which students may be served Part C benefits children under age 3 who: Need early intervention services because of developmental delays Have a diagnosed physical or mental condition that has a high probability of resulting in a developmental delay States have the option of serving at-risk children Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer 15 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. IDEA Disability Categories

Specific learning disabilities Emotional disturbance Mental retardation Multiple disabilities Deaf-blindness Autism Other health impairments Orthopedic impairments Traumatic brain injury Speech or language impairments Hearing impairments Visual impairments

You will learn about these categories in Chapters 5 through 16. Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer 16 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Six Principles Zero reject Nondiscriminatory evaluation Appropriate education Least restrictive environment Procedural due process Parental and student participation Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer

17 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Zero Reject Ensures all children and youth (3 21), no matter how severe their disabilities, will have an appropriate education provided at public expense Applies to: Educability Discipline Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer 18 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Discipline

Equal treatment No cessation Unique circumstances Short-term removals Manifestation determination Response to no manifestation Response to manifestation Services in interim alternative educational setting Weapons, drugs, and injury Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer 19 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Nondiscriminatory Evaluation:

Two Purposes Does the student have a disability? What kind of special education and related services does the student require? Assessment Requirements Screening Prereferral Response to intervention Referral Nondiscriminatory evaluation Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer 20

2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Appropriate Education: IEP/IFSPs Individualized education for each student with a disability Developed collaboratively by the same people involved in the evaluation Outcome oriented (include goals/objectives) Provide the foundation for the students appropriate education Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer 21 2010 Pearson Education,

Inc. Appropriate Education IFSPs IEPs Document for students 321 Need to be in effect at the beginning of the school year Reviewed and revised at least once a year Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer

22 Document for children ages 02 Describes the services both the child and family will receive Should be developed within 45 days of referral and reviewed at 6-month intervals and every year thereafter 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. IEP Team Participants Activities IEP Conference

Parents General educator Special educator School system representative Evaluation interpreter Others Student

Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer 23 Prepare in advance Connect and get started Review formal evaluation and current levels of performance Share resources, priorities, and concerns Share visions and expectations Consider interactions of proposed students goals, placement and services Translate student priorities into written goals Determine placement, supplementary aids/services, and related services Address assessment modifications and special factors Conclude the conference 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Least Restrictive

Environment Education with students who do not have disabilities For early childhood, IDEA favors the natural environment The rule: A presumption of inclusion Access to the general education curriculum Setting aside the presumption The continuum of services Extracurricular and nonacademic inclusion Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer 24 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Procedural Due Process Makes schools and parents accountable to each other Resolution session Mediation Not required by IDEA but strongly encouraged Due process hearing Similar to a regular courtroom trial Conducted before an impartial hearing officer Parents and schools are entitled to have lawyers present Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer 25 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Parent and Student Participation

Parents are members of teams Parents receive notification before schools do anything about their childs education Parents have the right to use the three dispute-resolution techniques Parents have access to school records concerning student At age of majority IDEA rights transfer to the student Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer 26 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Relationship Among 6 Principles (Figure 17) IDEA Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer

27 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Federal Funding of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Congress grants federal money to state and local educational agencies The federal money is insufficient to provide all services States and local school districts must provide their own funds Special education services are expensive Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer 28

2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Six Principles of No Child Left Behind Accountability for results School safety Parental choice Teacher quality Scientifically-based methods of teaching Local flexibility Also Aligned with IDEA because it seeks improved outcomes for students with disabilities Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer 29 2010 Pearson Education,

Inc. Other Federal Laws: Entitlements and Antidiscrimination Rehabilitation Act Allows people to seek vocational rehabilitation services so they may work Provides services such as supported employment programs and job coaches Tech Act Allows states to create statewide systems for delivering assistive technology devices and support to people with disabilities Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer 30 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Other Federal Laws: Entitlements and

Antidiscrimination Section 504 Applies to any program or activity receiving federal funds Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Applies to other programs or activities available to the public that do NOT receive federal funds Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer 31 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Special Education Results

Equality of opportunity Full participation Independent living Economic self-sufficiency Measured by: High school completion rates Post school employment rates Overall satisfaction with life Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools, 6e Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull, and Michael Wehmeyer 32 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

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