Authoritative Teacher Style - Kulturskolan Stockholm
Authoritative Teacher Style Teachers helping their students to be intrinsically motivated. The overall project idea is to develop methods how to motivate learners to learn. (I-MoToLe, p. 60) high drop-out rates in adult education
<> intrinsic motivation to learn > social integration and socio-economic mobility There is a scientifically proven effect of motivation on the participation behavior of adult learners, and their finishing a course, with or without success. (Boeren & Nicaise, 2009) What moves people?
(motivation < Latin moveo: being moved to act) How can intrinsic motivation be externally triggered? Self-Determination Theory the most comprising & leading theory with regard to motivation research
tested over the last four decades in empirical and experimental studies worldwide founded by Richard Ryan and Edward Deci, behavioral scientists, University of Rochester (NY) Not quantity, but
quality not more or less, but: controlled motivation = having the feeling to have no other choice than to behave in a certain way >> less interest and effort toward achievement; disowning responsibility for negative outcomes, blaming others such as the teacher
VERSUS autonomous motivation = a sense of choice, volition or freedom > taking responsibility >> more engagement (Connell & Wellborn, 1991), better performance (Miserandino, 1996), lower drop-out (Valerand & Bissonnette, 1992), higher quality learning (Grolnick & Ryan, 1987), better teacher ratings (Hayamizu, 1997), enhanced persistence and perseverance etc. >> heightened vitality, self-esteem, well-being
SDT assumes that humans have a natural inclination toward activity and responsibility, but a vulnerability to passivity and indolence. cf. spontaneous interest and exploration of little children This innate tendency is essential to cognitive and social development and it represents a principal source of enjoyment and vitality.
SDT focuses on the social-contextual conditions that facilitate versus forestall the natural process of self-motivation. > autonomous motivation is something which can initially be external but is internalized; thus, it is something which can be provoked
Psychological basic nee ds three innate, essential and universal (!) needs people can not thrive without satisfying all of them, any more than people can thrive with water but not food * need for autonomy * need for belongingness
* need for competence (cf. ABC needs, Skinner & Belmont, 1993) when satisfied, they yield self-motivation Authoritative parenting style < parenting theory * autonomy supportive (vs. controlling)
* belongingness: parental responsiveness the degree of support, warmth and love in the relation between parent and child * competence: setting rules and applying them consistently > social and educational self-regulation > less depression, fear (of failing), stress, drug use, delinquency
Authoritative teacher style * autonomy support e.g. the learner has a say in determining the learning objectives and strategies; or, the teacher makes the learner see the importance of the learning objectives, so that the learner
gradually takes over the objectives (internalisation) and takes the responsibility for it * responsiveness * structure Authoritative teacher style
* autonomy support * responsiveness (or engagement): the quality of the interpersonal relation between the teacher and her learners; the teacher is tuned into the learners and makes with pleasure and devotion/attachment time for them; expressing affection, showing sincere interest, empathy, warmth
and care > the learners take over the objectives of the teacher, until they pursue them voluntarily * structure Authoritative teacher style
* autonomy support * responsiveness * structure = support for competence e.g. optimal challenges, setting guidelines so that tasks can be performed well, expressing and explaining clear expectations, regular informative (constructive) feedback, consistently offering
individualized help > the learners have the experience that they master their learning process <> inconsistent, unpredictable recommendation for future research: doing (quasi-)experimental and action research
in which teachers are learnt to put these three dimensions into practice > our training package is a form of such action research
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