Attribution Theory

Attribution Theory

ATTRIBUTION THEORY Naive Psychology Attributions We try to discern the motives and personality traits. Psychologist look at how such judgments are made.

Examples: Fundamental Attribution Error Actor-Observer Bias Defensive Attribution (Blame the victim.) Self-serving Bias Discounting Augmentation Am I really sick?

attend to bodily sensations interpret sensations in the context of illness negative mood (Skelton)

INFORMATION AND SELF-REGULATORY THEORY (Skelton and Pennebaker) influenced by e.g. culture and schema amount of information social comparison Attribution Therapies ATTRIBUTIONS: self-defeating verses self-enhancing

James-Lange Theory Cannon-Bard Theory Role of Hormones Two-Factor Theory of Emotion: Singer (1962) Confederate

happy epinephrine placebo

Schachter and Confederate Sad or anxious more positive mood more negative mood No change No change

Subjects not informed or misinformed about effects of epinephrine given an injection of either epinephrine or placebo Put in room with confederate who pretended to be feeling euphoric or anxious from the same injection When given epinephrine most interpreted their internal feelings from the situationthe confederates apparent reaction. Not so with the placebo. Not so when informed about the true nature of the drug Two-Factor Theory of Emotion Schachter and Singer (1962)

Autonomic arousal Cognitive interpretation of that arousal (Ovid) Misattribution And The Exacerbation Model Following the two factor theory:

Ross, Rodin and Zimbardo (1969) Storms and Nisbett (1970) Storms and Nisbett (1970) VERIDICAL REATTRIBUTION Lowery, Denney, and Storms (1979)

case studies modern crisis intervention Drug Psychosis

Sexual Dysfunctions VERIDICAL REATTRIBUTION AND DRUG PYCHOSIS Modified from, Beckers Social Basis Drug-induced Experience Drug Culture Names, explain and talks about the drug and its effects. May indicate to novice that he or she is having a typical reaction therefore he or she is normal. Drug

Old Culture (Taken by novice.) Indicates or asserts. Drugs cause mental illness or Took drugs as a result of underlying disorder and/or drug precipitated psychotic reaction New experiences Errors in action

Becker asserts that with a second culture (a drug culture) available, one may be faced with competing definitions about what is happening within his/her subjective experience. Drugs cause mental illness May be seen as a self-fulfilling prophecy. According to Becker, for Mechanism for preventing psychosis to work: Need 3 conditions: 1. Drug must not cause damage. 2. Users must share a set of understandingsA culture 3. Novice should be in a group setting. VERIDICAL REATTRIBUTION AND SEX PROBLEMS History of Sex Research

Pioneering Stage Kinsey Reports (1948, 1953) Masters and Johnson Myths and Fallacies

The Myth of the Males Sexual Wisdom The search for Aphrodisiacs Penis Size Masturbation

Myths and Fallacies Two Types of Orgasm in Women Single versus Multiple Orgasm Focus on orgasm Masters and Johnson view of

the Sex Response TIME Sexual Exciteme nt The Hots Myths and Fallacies Focus on Orgasm: excitement phase

plateau stage orgasm phase resolution stage Myths and Fallacies Myth of the identity of male and female sexual urges Sex as a Barometer of a good relationship

Sex and old age Masters and Johnsons behavioral therapy for sexual problems

Focus on socio-cultural deprivation and ignorance of sexual physiology Focus on relationship as a whole Prescribed specific sexual exercises Focus on pleasure (no pressure) Systematic Desensitisation Modern Sex Education M.& J.: Seeing parents and other comfortable with sex Sex education: how it is being taught in elementary classrooms (reprints available from Grade Teacher, 23 Leroy Ave. Darien Conn. 06820). Found at York Regional School board's Parent-Teacher Meeting

Four Concepts: Self-awareness Physiological Reproductive family Modern Sex Education MODERN ATTRIBUTIONAL STYLE THERAPY changing self-defeating myths

about sex changing self-defeating attributional style of those with low self esteem

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