APES year in review - Weebly

APES year in review - Weebly

APES YEAR IN REVIEW 2013, The year everyone gets a 5! Introduction Understand how natural world works Understand how human systems interact with natural system Accurately determine environmental problems Develop and follow a sustainable

relationship with natural world EASTER ISLAND Sustainability - A system/process can continue indefinitely without depleting resources used. *no sacrifice to future generations* Stewardship Caring for something that does not belong to you Sound Science Use the scientific method A. Human population growth

More than 7 billion people currently last 25 yrs population grew by 2 billion (Birth Rate+ Immigration) (Death Rate+ Emigration) = Pop Growth Rate Rule of 70. 70 divided by % rate of increase= doubling time

increase pop increase need for resources B. SOIL DEGRADATION Demand for food destroys the soil erosion minerals in soil are depleted salinization increased use of pesticides Overuse of fresh water

C. GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC CHANGES Global Warming CO2 produced from fossil fuel burning acts like a blanket around the earth. Plants take CO2 out of the atmosphere through photosynthesis 6CO +6H O => 60 + C H O 2 2 2 6 12 6 Ozone depletion Chemicals released from the surface of the earth destroy our ozone shield.

No stratospheric ozone, no protection from the UV rays of the sun. OZONE DEPLETION AND CLIMATE CHANGE ARE DIFFERENT FROM EACHOTHER AND HAVE DIFFERENT CAUSES! D. LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY Habitat destruction leads to a loss of many species starting with the plants exact # of species lost is unknown because not all species are identified strong ecosystems need biodiversity 1959-1980 25% of all prescription drugs

from natural resources Wild species keep domestic species vigorous Aesthetics Rachel Carson was a scientist who wrote Silent Spring in 1962. It addressed the growing use of pesticides (DDT) and their unpredicted effects on song birds. Original users of pesticides did not know that the poisons used to kill insects would accumulate in other living things and kill them too. BIOACCUMULATION MORE COOL

ENVIRONMENTALIST John Muir Sierra Club Ansel Adams Photography (Yosemite) Aldo Leopold Sand County Almanac Henry David Thoreau Walden Garrett Hardin Tragedy of the Commons ECOSYSTEMS Levels of organization of matter Universe Ecosphere/biosphere Ecosystems Communities

Populations Organisms Cells Atoms Cool Web Animation (Click Here) Ecosystems Plants and animals interacting with their abiotic environment. Ecosystems exist in biomes. Climate ave temperature over time *Weather daily variations in temp and precipitation Microclimate and Other Abiotic Factors * light intensity * Soil type

* topography TROPHIC RELATIONSHIP Food webs Trophic levels * producers * herbivores *primary carnivores BIOMASS AND BIOMASS PYRAMID All biomass gets its energy from the sun Only 10% of energy from one trophic level

moves to the next trophic level Energy released is high potential energy molecules (like glucose) then converted to low potential energy molecules (like carbon dioxide) * concept of eating lower on the biomass pyramid Relationships Mutualism * Flowers & insects Commensalism Predator/prey host parasite Competition

habitat vs. niche LIMITING FACTORS Temperature, light, oxygen, carbon dioxide, precipitation Optimum levels Zones of stress Limits of Tolerance Range of Tolerance Synergistic effects The interaction of two or more factors is greater than the sum of the effects

when each acts alone. Example: pollution and disease Ecosystems, how they work Recycle or Die All matter is recycled through the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. Nothing is created nothing is destroyed All stable ecosystems recycle matter and get energy from the sun PHYSICS Energy

is measured in calories Calorie amount of heat needed to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius. Kilocalorie = 1,000 calories 1st law of thermodynamics Energy cannot be created nor destroyed, only

change forms (light to chemical) 2nd law of thermodynamics Energy transformation increases disorder (entropy) of the universe. Heat is the lowest grade of energy. CHEMISTRY Atoms

basic units of matter Electron Proton Neutron Chemical Ionic bonds - how atoms are held together Covalent Molecule/compound

together pH scale Base/alkaline Acid two or more atoms bonded ORGANIC COMPOUNDS C-C bonds and/or C-H bonds They can be natural or synthetic Natural:

compounds that make up living systems Synthetic: man-made compounds PHOTOSYNTHESIS Very inefficient (Only 1% of the energy from the sun is used) Chlorophyll absorbs light to drive photosynthesis Plants use glucose to: Construct

other molecules Build their cell wall Store energy Source of energy CARBON CYCLE Photosynthesis! Moving fossil fuels (which took millions of years to form) to the atmosphere (in hundreds of years) is a major component of global warming.

Hydrocarbon fuels to CO2 NITROGEN CYCLE Main reserve in the atmosphere Living things must get N from ammonium (NH4) or nitrate (NO3) N from the atmo must be fixed Change Rhizobium

N2 into ammonium or nitrate (bacteria living in roots of legumes) fig 3-10 Industrial Lightning Burning fossil fuels PHOSPHORUS CYCLE No gas phase, only solid and liquid Man-made fertilizers contain organic

phosphates Because P is a limiting factor in aquatic systems, it leads to eutrophication The rain forest is very good at recycling P, except when we cut it down element Main nonliving reservoir Carbon Atmo

CO2 C Main living reservoir Other nonliving reservoir Carbohydrates Hydro Carbonate (CH2O)n And all organic (CO3-2) Bicarbonate

molecules (HCO3-) Litho minerals Nitrogen Atmo N N2 Proteins and other Ncontaining organic molecules

DNA Phos- Litho phorous rocks as ATP P PO4-3 *no gas phase Hydro Ammonium NH4+ Nitrate NO3Nitrite NO2-

Hydro Phosphate phospholipids PO4-3 Human-induced problem Global warming Carbon from fossil fuels underground are burned and released into the air as CO2 Eutrophication Fertilizers contain humanmade nitrates that end up in the water

Eutrophication Fertilizers contain humanmade phosphates that end up in the water Cutting down rainforest stops recycling of P POPULATION AND SUCCESSION Top 6 most abundant elements in living things (not in order) * NCHOPS Top 8 elements in the earths crust (in order)

* O, Si, Al, Fe (iron), Ca, Na (sodium), P, Mg Only silly apes in college study past midnight. FIRES IN ECOSYSTEM Maintain balance of species and energy in ecosystems over the long run. Beneficial b/c provide nutrients for soil We avoid natural fires, but the problems like Crown Fires- (not natural) kill the whole tree 1988 Yellowstone fires changed climax ecosystems of white bark pine trees to huckle berries. Grizzlies eat both

Succession - One species gradually replaced by another in an ecosystem Primary new ecosystem where there were no living things before. Cooled lava, receded glacier, mud slide

Secondary- ecosystem used to be there. Fire, humans clear an area Aquatic lakes taken over by terrestrial ecosystem Climax ecosystem- in balance only changes if major interference Primary succession Must create new soil for plants to grow The first plants to come in are called pioneer species Lichen

Moss Microbes MAIN TOPICS 1.Energy flow and the biomass pyramid figs 3-13 and 3-21 2.Population dynamics fig 4-2, 4-3 3.Biotic potential vs environmental resistance fig 4-4 4.Population equilibrium and balanced herbivory figs 4-5, 4-15 5.Introduced species effects on ecosystems fig 4-6, 4-7

Evolutionary Change Vocabulary that you need to know * DNA * Chromosome * Gene * allele Central Dogma: DNA- blueprint RNA- carpenter Protein- house, wood MUTATIONS Mutations

are naturally random events * Normal variation * Chemical * UV * Radiation Genetic Trait- only passed down if an organism reproduces WHY DO SPECIES CHANGE? Environmental resistance and

biotic potential Selective pressure on mutations Speciation * creation of a new species based on reproductive isolation Speciation (Galapagos Finches) GEOLOGICAL CONTEXT (SPACE AND TIME FOR EVOLUTION) Plate tectonics

Geological time scale (fig. 5-21) Cambrian explosion Selective breeding Artificial selection Natural selection The Human Population Chapter 6 World population trends Calculations Demographic transition Age structure diagrams Developed vs. developing countries

Chapter 7 Fertility rates World bank 1994 UN conference in Cairo- program of action (b) crude birth rate= number birth per 1000 individuals (d) crude death rate= number death per 1000 individuals (r) growth rate = natural increase in population expressed as percent number is negative, the population is shrinking.) equation: rate = birth death But other factors affect population growth in a certain area

per years (If this POPULATION GROWTH RATES increase population births immigration decrease population deaths emigration (exit) r = (birth - death)+ (immigration-emigration) immigration = migration of individuals into a

population from another area or country emigration = migration of individuals from a population bound for another country r = (birth - death)+ (immigration-emigration) example: population of 10,000 has 100 births (10 per 1000) 50 deaths (5 per 1000) 10 immigration (1 per 1000) 100 emigration (10 per 1000) You try. B D

I E r=( 10/1000) (5/1000) + (1/1000) (10/1000) r=(0.01-0.005) + (0.001 0.01) r = 0.005 0.009 = -0.004 or 0.4% per year If the growth rate is 1% and the population size is 10,000, how many years will it take to get to a population of 40,000? Population doubling: 70/rate =70/1% =70 years to double In 70 years the population will be 20,000 1 D.T. 2 D.T.

20,000 40,000 (70 years)(2) =140 years In 140 years, the population will be 40,000 people. SHOW YOUR WORK!!!!!!!!! Bottom Line= as countries develop, first their death rate drops and then their birth rate drops Reasons for the phases: Phase II: medical care

nutrition technology Phase III: (births still high) birth control

education (of women) lower mortality rate of infants less child labor Developed Countries Canada, U.S., Australia, Western Europe

(Denmark) Developing Countries Latin 1/5 America, China, Africa (Kenya) of the worlds pop. Lives in absolute poverty, illiterate, lack clean H2O and dont have enough food 80% of worlds pop. Lives in developing co. and growing Total

fertility= avg. # of children born per woman For developed countries = 2.1 For developing countries = 2.6 Fertility of 2.0= replacement level Under 2.0 = shrinking population Over 2.0 = growing pop. For developed countries = 2.1 For developing countries = 2.6(or higher)

Special agency of the United Nations Receives $$ from developed co. and loans $$ to developing co. Sometimes this backfires by increasing debt Oversees all types of issues, not just environmental issues Ex. electricity, roads, new modern technology Soil (Dust Bowl, Porosity and Permeability Lab) Texture

Sand 2.0-.02 mm Silt .02-.002 mm Clay.002mm some microscopic LOAM: 40%SAND 40% SILT 20% CLAY LOAM IS THEORETICALLY THE IDEAL SOIL CLASSES OF SOIL Mollisols- very fertile, dark, found in temperate grasslands, best agricultural soil, Deep A horizon Oxisols- soil of tropical and subtropical rainforest layer of iron and Al oxides in B horizon, little O horizon Alfisols- weathered forest soil, not deep, but developed OAE+B typical of

most temperate forest biome. Need fertilizer for agriculture Aridsols- dry lands + desert, lack of vegetation, lack of rain unstructured vertically, irrigation leads to salinization b/c of high evaporation. Water Figure 9-1 Earths water supply WATER FACTS The primary use for fresh water in

U.S. is for agriculture. In our homes, we use the most fresh water to wash, clean and flush. The typical person in an industrialized nation uses 700-1000 gallons per week! HUMAN EFFECTS ON THE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE Figure 9-3 The Hydrologic cycle

Figure 9-5a Global air circulation Rain shadow Figure 9-6 Rain shadow THE OGALLALA AQUIFER Figure 9-16 Exploitation of an aquifer MONO LAKE Excellent

example of human interference with the water supply. The water in the lake was diverted from the lake to the city of Los Angeles. It became a salt bed. Salt concentration due to evaporation Three Gorges Dam in China China needs to meet the growing demand for energy Huge environmental impact Hundreds of thousands of people will be displaced (not to mention the ecosystems which will be flooded)

Food GENETICALLY ALTERED FOOD, IRISH POTATO FAMINE Air Greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels Other air pollutants from fossil fuels Pollutions from pesticide sprays Water Soil Erosion Loss of fertility

Salinization Waterlogging Desertification Aquifer depletion Increased runoff and flooding from land cleared to grow crops Fish kills from pesticide runoff Surface and groundwater pollution from pesticides and fertilizers Over fertilization of lakes >> eutrophication MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF FOOD PRODUCTION

Biodiversity Loss Loss and degradation of habitat from clearing grasslands and forests and draining wetlands Fish kills from pesticide runoff Killing of wild predators to protect live stock Loss of genetic diversity from replacing thousands of wild crop strains with a few monoculture strains Human Health

Nitrates in drinking water Pesticide residues in drinking water, food, and air Contamination of drinking and swimming water with disease organisms from livestock wastes THE GREEN REVOLUTION To eliminate hunger by improving crop performance Movement to increase yields by using: New

crop cultivars Irrigation Fertilizers Pesticides Mechanization Results: Did not eliminate famine Population still increasing Increase cost of production An increased negative environmental impact Didnt work for everyone

Protection of Biodiversity and Ecosystems Threatened if the trend continues, the species will be endangered. Endangered if the trend continues, the species will go extinct. Pharmaceuticals and native plants Approximately 25% of drugs used as medicines come from natural plant sources. The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (1989) 300,000 birds died as a result of that particular oil spill. The area, Prince William Sound, is still recovering. KNOW SPECIFIC DETAILS ABOUT

These Endangered animals (and check Barrons examples): Whooping Crane- Eggs raised by sandhill cranes led to problems, but the efforts proved successful overall. Peregrine Spotted Fish Falcon- DDT Owl- deforestation living in Georges Bank (off New England)-The marketable fish were over fished and other species took over. An example

of poor management of fisheries. Endocrine Disrupters Interfere with normal hormone action Can interfere with development Are often connected to cancer Can interfere with sexual activity (alligators) Are found in plastics and some pesticides Fossil FuelsExxon Valdez Coal-several (400)

hundred years Natural Gas at least a 50 year supply in the United States Oil- about a decade until supplies peak IMPORTANT ENERGY FACTS Brief history of energy *1700-1800 Fire wood *1900-1920 Coal *1950- now crude oil

production of crude oil = with drawing it from reserves OPEC (pg 319) organization of petroleum exporting countries (Mid-east countries mainly) MORE ENERGY FACTS We get 50% of our crude oil from foreign sources Alaska pipeline built to help increase production of domestic crude oil Types of coal: Peat (not coal) Lignite (brown coal)

Bituminous coal (soft coal with high sulfur) Anthracite (hard coal with low sulfur) OIL: THE MOST IMPORTANT FOSSIL FUEL IN THE AMERICAN ECONOMY Environmental Consequences 1.Production: local ecosystems damage possible 2.Transport: oil spills cause local and regional ecosystem damage 3.Use: photochemical smog, particulates, acid precipitation,

carbon dioxide Coal Environmental Consequences 1.Production: ecosystem damage, reclamation difficult, acid mine runoff, mine tailings, erosion, black lung, radon 2.Transport: energy intensive because of weight and number of train cars needed 3.Use: fossil fuel with largest source of carbon dioxide and greatest quantity of contaminants, large volume of waste, acid precipitation

Natural Gas Possibly a transition fuel between fossil fuel and alternative energy sources. Environmental Consequences: 1.Production: local ecosystem damage possible if oil or coal is part of the deposit 2.Transport: can be explosive 3.Use: produces the least air pollutants of all the fossil fuels ELECTRICITY

Electricity is a secondary energy source because it relies on another energy source to create the electricity. Basic production of electricity-boil water to produce steam to turn turbines to generate electron flow through a wire. Examples of primary sources for electrical production 20% from nuclear 57% from coal Oil, geothermal, solar, wind, hydroelectric (no boiling water required for these sources) Is electricity a clean energy source? NUCLEAR POWER A.Pros: No CO2 emissions, no particulate

emissions B.Cons: Radiation can lead to damaged DNA, costs, radioactive waste, thermal pollution C.Basically- the splitting of uraniums nucleus gives off heat that can be used to boil water and turn a turbo generator to create electricity. D.Naturally

occurring Uranium is mined. NUCLEAR IMPORTANT FACTS Fusion- the combination of 2 atoms to form a larger atom Fission- splitting an atom Nuclear Regulatory Commission is the US governmental Agency that regulates nuclear power plants Radioisotope= unstable radioactive isotope URANIUM

Uranium 235 has 92 protons and 143 neutrons. It is radioactive and used as fuel in nuclear reactors. When U235 is hit by a neutron, it is split (fission) into two smaller elements such as Kr and Ba plus three neutrons which sustain the chain reaction. Most (99.3%) of the naturally occurring uranium is U238. For a nuclear reactor, this must be purified to 4% U235 and 96% U238. (very expensive)

D. HOW DOES A POWER PLANT OPERATE? a. Water moderator: slows down neutrons b. Neutron-absorbing material- control rod c. Fuel Rodsapproximately one third replaced each year d. Heat transfer system e. Cooling system f. Redundant safety systems WASTE DISPOSAL

All fuel rods are still in cooling ponds at commercial nuclear facilities Proposed site for disposal - Yucca Mountain in SE Nevada Concerns: Geological active area, Intrusion of water table, distances for wastes travel, radioactive decay and half-lives ACCIDENTS Chernobyl:

4/26/86 Ukraine complete Three meltdown. Mile Island: 3/28/79 Pennsylvania (Harrisburg) partial meltdown, no one known to be hurt.

Renewable Energy Sunlight, wind, falling H2O, geothermal Not fossil fuels, not nuclear INDIRECT SOLAR POWER How does it affect Wind? Hydropower? Firewood? Hydro carbon fuels? Nuclear and Geothermal are not indirect solar

SOLAR ENERGY Passive solar Large south-facing windows, heavy drapes to trap heat at night, interior bricks to trap heat Shade windows in summer Even though back up systems are required, and solar heating may only lessen the need for heating oil a few %, it will help us adapt to diminishing oil supplies. Active solar Photovoltaic (PV) panels can be used to convert the energy from the sun into electricity. Electrons from the silicon in the PV panel are pushed through a wire by photons from the sun

creating an electric current. Risks, Toxicology and Pests Borneo (DDT), MTBE Hazard - Anything that causes: Injury, disease, or death to humans Damage to property Destruction of the environment Cultural hazard - a risk that a person chooses to engage in Risk The probability of suffering (1, 2, or 3) as a result of a hazard Perception What people think the risks are

CIGARETTE SMOKING Leading cause of cancer in U.S. Can cause cancer, lung disease, a bigger risk of death in addition with other types of air pollution. Highest health risk in U.S. INSECTICIDES/ PESTICIDES Integrated pest management includes:

adjusting environmental conditions chemical pesticides disease resistant varieties crop rotation biological controls Insecticides kills plants, mammals, fish, birds A broad spectrum pesticide is effective towards many types of pests

DDT accumulates in fat body tissues of animals DDT was not used for handling weeds DDT is, persistent, synthetic organic compound and a subject to biomagnifications in food chains Diseases

Lyme disease can be processed to humans through a bite from an infected tick Mosquitoes causes Malaria, the vector for Plasmodium The protozoan of the genus Plasmodium is the causative agent of

malaria Diseases contd Lack of access to safe drinking water is a major cause of disease transmission in developing countries. Epidemiology is the study of the

presence, distribution and control of a diseases in a population Morbidity is the incidence of disease in a population Mortality is the incidence of death in a population WATER POLLUTION Sewage treatment is a common practice In the 1970s many cities were still dumping raw sewage into waterways In 1972, the Clean water act provided funding for upgrading sewage treatment plants

Currently water ways are the much better 1, 2 use preliminary but no more Test for sewage contamination in drinking H2O Fecal Coliform test Sewage Treatment Raw sewage (99% H2O) Preliminary Treatment- allow grit to settle 1 separating Raw Sludge from H2O 2 AKA Biological Treatmentbacteria feeds on the organic material Trickling filters contain bacteria remove raw sludge from the H2O

Raw Sludge May contain heavy metals If it does it needs 3 treatment, to remove the toxic chemicals HOME SEPTIC SYSTEMS: do not use Chlorine Do use settling tank to settle organic solids Lets waste water percolate into the soil bacterial decomposition SOLID WASTE 210,000,000

tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) are disposed of annually in the United States. Most of that waste is paper. Fifty-five percent of MSW is disposed of in landfills. 17% of MSW is combusted, mostly in waste-to-energy (WTE) combustion facilities. What are the advantages and disadvantages of WTE combustion? The best solution to solid waste problems is to reduce waste at its source. More than 75% of MSW is recyclable. What role is recycling playing in waste management, and how is recycling best promoted? Much more can be done to move MSW management in a more sustainable direction. What are some recommendations to

improve MSW management? HAZARDOUS WASTE Halogenated hydrocarbons Organic compounds with a halogen (bromine, iodine, ect.) replacing a hydrogen Used as pesticides Used to make plastic Resistant to biodegradation Chlorinated hydrocarbons Chlorinated

hydrocarbons Are synthetic organic compounds Dioxin Mainly caused by burning PVC pipe (medical waste) Linked to cancer. Also an endocrine disruptor. Love Canal, NY The government allowed housing to be build over the toxic waste dump and people got sick Problem first discovered in 1978

First national emergency in the US because of toxic waste Led to the superfund legislation. Superfund sites: $ comes from taxes on chemical industries 50% of the $ spent on legal costs Layers of the Atmosphere Troposphere ---------Tropopause Stratosphere --------- Stratopause Mesosphere

--------- Mesopause Thermosphere Composition of the troposphere 78% N2 20% O2 Less than 2% H2O vapor (.01%-4%) Argon gas (1%) CO2 (0.04%) Trace gases Global warming The greenhouse effect is natural and important to deep the earth warm enough for

life to exist Global warming occurs when humans contribute too much of these greenhouse gases leading to a small (1-3 degree C) but significant rise in the global average temperature. Analogy Car on a sunny day Ozone (O3) Tropospheric ozone is BAD If we breath it, it causes lung damage It is also a greenhouse gas Stratospheric ozone is GOOD

It shields us from the harmful UVB rays of the sun. Ozone depletion is the thinning of the stratospheric ozone shield (mostly over the South Pole, Australia story) Analogy Stratospheric O is like sunscreen 3 for the earth. AIR POLLUTION Expensive: health care costs, human lives -acute

- Chronic - Carcinogenic Damages buildings, bridges, statues, books Aesthetics Damage to Plants - Agriculture crops loss ~$5 billion/year - Forests ACIDS AND BASES pH-log of hydrogen ions in a solution. Therefore each number higher on the pH scale is 10X more basic Basic-

OH- (hydroxyl ions) over 7 on the pH scale Acidic-H+ ions under 7 on the pH scale Neutral- pure water is 7 on the pH scale Normal rain is slightly acidic-pH 6.4 Acid rain is defined as less than a pH of 5.5 INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS 1. Types: benzene, formaldehyde, radon, cigarette smoke 2. Sources: off gassing from furniture, rugs and building

materials, dry cleaning, cleaning fluids, disinfectants, pesticides, heaters 3. Buildings with too many indoor air pollutants are called sick buildings because more than 20% of the people are sick due to occupying the building. MAJOR OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS Primary direct products of combustion and

evaporation Secondary when primary pollutants undergo further reactions in atmosphere 1.Suspended particulate matter (primary) 2.Volatile Organic Compounds (secondary) 3.Carbon Monoxide (primary) 4.Nitrogen Oxides (can be both) 5.Sulfur Oxides(primary from combustion of coal) 6.Ozone and other photochemical oxidants (secondary) SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION Natural:

a. Sulfur: Volcanoes, sea spray, microbial b. Nitrogen oxides: lightening, forest fires, microbial Anthropogenic (human caused) a. Sulfur oxides: coal burning plants, industry, fossil fuels. b. Nitrogen oxides: power plants, industrial fuel combustion, transportation c. Effect areas hundreds of miles from the source of emissions, generally not the whole globe SOLUTIONS: REDUCING EMISSIONS Best way = Conservation, just use

less! Input Control a.Cleaner burning gasoline b.increased fuel efficiency c.alternative modes of transportation d.decrease the number of miles driven e.changes in land use decisions f.catalytic converter

OUTPUT CONTROL A. Scrubbers: exhaust fumes through a spray of H2O containing lime (CaCO3) SO2 CaSO3 B. Coal washing to get rid of sulfur C. Fluidized bed combustion (produces a waste ash that must be disposed of)

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