# Analysis of Algorithms

Iterators and Sequences 2010 Goodrich, Tamassia Iterators and Sequences 1 Iterators An iterator abstracts the process of scanning through a collection of elements It maintains a cursor that sits between elements in the list, or before the first or after the last element Methods of the Iterator ADT: hasNext(): returns true so long as the list is not empty and the cursor is not after the last element next(): returns the next element Extends the concept of position by adding a traversal capability Implementation with an array or singly linked list

2010 Goodrich, Tamassia Iterators and Sequences 2 Iterable Classes An iterator is typically associated with an another data structure, which can implement the Iterable ADT We can augment the Stack, Queue, Vector, List and Sequence ADTs with method: Iterator iterator(): returns an iterator over the elements In Java, classes with this method extend Iterable Two notions of iterator: snapshot: freezes the contents of the data structure at a given time dynamic: follows changes to the data structure In Java: an iterator will fail (and throw an exception) if the underlying collection changes unexpectedly

2010 Goodrich, Tamassia Iterators and Sequences 3 The For-Each Loop Java provides a simple way of looping through the elements of an Iterable class: for (type name: expression) loop_body For example: List values; int sum=0 for (Integer i : values) sum += i; // boxing/unboxing allows this 2010 Goodrich, Tamassia Iterators and Sequences 4 Implementing Iterators Array based

Linked list based array A of the elements index i that keeps track of the cursor doubly-linked list L storing the elements, with sentinels for header and trailer pointer p to node containing the last element returned (or the header if this is a new iterator). We can add methods to our ADTs that return iterable objects, so that we can use the foreach loop on their contents 2010 Goodrich, Tamassia Iterators and Sequences 5 List Iterators in Java Java uses a the ListIterator ADT for node-based lists. This iterator includes the following methods:

add(e): add e at the current cursor position hasNext(): true if there is an element after the cursor hasPrevious: true if there is an element before the cursor previous(): return the element e before the cursor and move cursor to before e next(): return the element e after the cursor and move cursor to after e set(e): replace the element returned by last next or previous operation with e remove(): remove the element returned by the last next or previous method 2010 Goodrich, Tamassia Iterators and Sequences 6 Sequence ADT The Sequence ADT is the union of the Array List and Node List ADTs Elements accessed by List-based

methods: Index, or Position Generic methods: size(), isEmpty() ArrayList-based methods: get(i), set(i, o), add(i, o), remove(i) 2010 Goodrich, Tamassia first(), last(), prev(p), next(p), replace(p, o), addBefore(p, o), addAfter(p, o), addFirst(o), addLast(o), remove(p) Bridge methods: Iterators and Sequences

atIndex(i), indexOf(p) 7 Applications of Sequences The Sequence ADT is a basic, generalpurpose, data structure for storing an ordered collection of elements Direct applications: Generic replacement for stack, queue, vector, or list small database (e.g., address book) Indirect applications: Building block of more complex data structures 2010 Goodrich, Tamassia Iterators and Sequences 8 Linked List Implementation

A doubly linked list provides a reasonable implementation of the Sequence ADT Nodes implement Position and store: element link to the previous node link to the next node Special trailer and header nodes header 2010 Goodrich, Tamassia Position-based methods run in constant time Index-based methods require searching from header or trailer while keeping track of indices; hence, run in linear time nodes/positions trailer elements Iterators and Sequences 9

Array-based Implementation elements We use a circular array storing positions A position object stores: Element Index Indices f and l keep track of first and last positions 2010 Goodrich, Tamassia 0 1 2 3 positions

S f Iterators and Sequences l 10 Comparing Sequence Implementations Operation Array 1 List 1 atIndex, indexOf, get 1 n first, last, prev, next 1 1 set(p,e) 1 1 set(i,e) 1