Amines & Amides

Amines & Amides

Amines & Amides Dr. Michael P. Gillespie Introduction Amines and Amides contain nitrogen. Nitrogen is an important component in the structure of the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. Amines are characterized by the presence of an amino group (-NH2). Histamine contributes to the inflammatory

response. Dr. Michael P. Gillespie 2 Introduction Amides are the products of a reaction between an amine and a carboxylic acid derivative. Amino acids are the subunits from which proteins are built. They are characterized by both an amino group

and a carboxyl group. Dr. Michael P. Gillespie 3 Amines: Structure & Properties Amines are a family of compounds that are contain an amino group or substituted amino group.

Dr. Michael P. Gillespie 4 Amines Dr. Michael P. Gillespie 5 Medically Important Amines

Amphetamines, such as benzedrine and methedrine, stimulate the central nervous system. They elevate blood pressure and pulse rate and are often used to treat fatigue. Medically, they have been used to treat depression and epilepsy. Amphetamines decrease the appetite and have been prescribed as diet pills. Dr. Michael P. Gillespie 6

Medically Important Amines Many of the medical amines are analgesics (pain relievers) or anesthetics (pain blockers). Novacaine is used as a local anesthetic. Demerol is a very strong pain reliever. Ephedrine is used as a decongestant. Sulfa drugs used to fight bacterial infections are made from amines. Dr. Michael P. Gillespie

7 Methamphetamine Methamphetamine is an addictive drug known by many names such as speed, crystal, crank, ice, and glass. Ephedrine, which is used as a nasal decongestant, can be used as the starting material for methamphetamine. Methamphetamine can be smoked, taken orally, snorted, or injected depending upon the form of

the drug. It stimulates the release of dopamine and norepinephrine into regions of the brain that control feelings of pleasure. Dr. Michael P. Gillespie 8 Methamphetamine Symptoms of long-term abuse include addiction, anxiety, violent behavior, confusion, psychotic symptoms of

paranoia, hallucinations, and delusions. In severe cases paranoia results in homicidal and / or suicidal feelings. Elevated heart rate and blood pressure can lead to strokes. In severe cases, cardiovascular collapse and death result. Dr. Michael P. Gillespie 9 Heterocyclic Amines

Heterocyclic amines are cyclic compounds that have at least one nitrogen atom in the ring structure. Dr. Michael P. Gillespie 10 Amides: Structure & Properties Amides are formed in a reaction between a carboxylic acid derivative

and an amine. The amine bond is the bond between the carbonyl carbon of the acyl group and the nitrogen of the amine. Dr. Michael P. Gillespie 11 Amides Dr. Michael P. Gillespie

12 Medically Important Amides Barbiturates (downers) are derived from amides and are used as sedatives. Acetaminophen is an amide. Dr. Michael P. Gillespie

13 Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters are chemicals that carry signals from a nerve cell to a target cell. The signals can be inhibitory or excitatory and they are all nitrogen containing compounds. Dr. Michael P. Gillespie

14 Catecholamines The catecholamines include dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. Too little dopamine produces Parkinsons disease. Too much dopamine is associated with schizophrenia. Dr. Michael P. Gillespie

15 Serotonin A deficiency of serotonin is associated with depression and eating disorders. Serotonin is also involved in pain perception, regulation of body temperature, and sleep. Dr. Michael P. Gillespie 16

Histamine Histamine contributes to allergy symptoms. Dr. Michael P. Gillespie 17 -Aminobutyric Acid & Glycine -Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) & Glycine

are inhibitory neurotransmitters. It is believed that GABA is involved in control of aggressive behaviors. Dr. Michael P. Gillespie 18 Acetylcholine Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that functions at the neuromuscular junction.

It carries signals from the nerve to the muscle. Dr. Michael P. Gillespie 19 Nitric Oxide & Glutamate Nitric oxide and glutamate function in a positive feedback loop. They are thought o be involved in

learning and the formation of memories. Dr. Michael P. Gillespie 20

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