Alternatives for Representing Coding of Qualitative Data

Alternatives for Representing Coding of Qualitative Data

Alternatives for Representing Coding of Qualitative Data in DDI Larry Hoyle Institute for Policy & Social Research University of Kansas 01/30/2020 Hoyle, Alternatives for Representing Coding of Qualitative Data, NADDI2014 1 Qualitative Data Digital or real-world object (analog?) - Purpose collected, gathered, or referenced Text XML Web pages Video Audio Images 01/30/2020 Hoyle, Alternatives for Representing Coding of Qualitative Data, NADDI2014

2 Three Scenarios 1. Documentation at the object level 2. Segments of objects need documentation E.g. CAQDAS codes associated with defined segments 3. Segments have documentation and quantitative data have been generated from the qualitative segments E.g. text mining DDI Qualitative Data Model Working Group http://www.ddialliance.org/alliance/working-groups#qdewg Thursday, Jan North American Data Documentatin Conference 2013 3 Segments Examples Segment defined by a rectangle Segment defined by a polygon

Segments can also be marked in text. Like in this text example. Text segment Thursday, Jan Overlapping text segment North American Data Documentatin Conference 2013 4 Current Model Overall model (many current DDI elements assumed to be applicable and not shown) Thursday, Jan Methods and Instruments

North American Data Documentatin Conference 2013 Segment Definition 5 Codes, Categories and Memos Segments can have Codes, Categories and Memos Modeled after terms from qualitative data analysis packages like Atlas/ti or NVIVO Thursday, Jan North American Data Documentatin Conference 2013 6 Codes and Memos

Dinner site Presentations Memo: This is marked here for an example in a PowerPoint Presentation Segments can also be marked in text. Like in this text example. Marking Thursday, Jan Text reference North American Data Documentatin Conference 2013 7 Dataset Off by itself is this Dataset This might be produced by text

mining, or might be quantitative data associated with an open-ended question Thursday, Jan North American Data Documentatin Conference 2013 8 Alternative Data/Metadata Record This is a data record which can be described by existing DDI elements It can contain codes, categories, memos, and any quantitative data associated with the segment 01/30/2020 Hoyle, Alternatives for Representing Coding of Qualitative Data, NADDI2014

9 Alternative - Dataset This dataset can be included in the DDI representation 01/30/2020 Hoyle, Alternatives for Representing Coding of Qualitative Data, NADDI2014 10 Comparison 01/30/2020 Hoyle, Alternatives for Representing Coding of Qualitative Data, NADDI2014 11 Example Records

Dataset SegmentID 01/30/2020 SegmentName CampusBuilding EveningVenue YearBuilt Address Cluster1 MiningVar 1 AlumniCenter 0 1

1983 1266 Oread Ave. 0 1.27 2 StudentUnion 1 0 1926 1301 JayHawk Blvd. 1 0.8 Hoyle, Alternatives for Representing Coding of Qualitative Data, NADDI2014 12 Example Record - Codes

Codes are handled like Select all that apply questions. 1=has code 0=does not SegmentID SegmentName Codes CampusBuilding EveningVenue YearBuilt Address Cluster1 MiningVar

1 AlumniCenter 0 1 1983 1266 Oread Ave. 0 1.27 2 StudentUnion 1 0 1926 1301 Jayhawk Blvd. 1 0.8

Could have Categories and Memo here as well 01/30/2020 Hoyle, Alternatives for Representing Coding of Qualitative Data, NADDI2014 13 Example Record Other Variables Quantitative Variables Codes SegmentID 01/30/2020 SegmentName CampusBuilding EveningVenue

YearBuilt Text Mining Variables Address Cluster1 MiningVar 1 AlumniCenter 0 1 1983 1266 Oread Ave. 0 1.27 2 StudentUnion

1 0 1926 1301 Jayhawk Blvd. 1 0.8 Hoyle, Alternatives for Representing Coding of Qualitative Data, NADDI2014 14 Searching Search for Evening Venue=1 SegmentID 01/30/2020 SegmentName

CampusBuilding EveningVenue YearBuilt Address Cluster1 MiningVar 1 AlumniCenter 0 1 1983 1266 Oread Ave. 0 1.27

2 StudentUnion 1 0 1926 1301 Jayhawk Blvd. 1 0.8 Hoyle, Alternatives for Representing Coding of Qualitative Data, NADDI2014 15 Searching Search for YearBuilt<1950 SegmentID 01/30/2020 SegmentName

CampusBuilding EveningVenue YearBuilt Address Cluster1 MiningVar 1 AlumniCenter 0 1 1983 1266 Oread Ave. 0 1.27

2 StudentUnion 1 0 1926 1301 Jayhawk Blvd. 1 0.8 Hoyle, Alternatives for Representing Coding of Qualitative Data, NADDI2014 16 Text Mining Example Each segment is a paragraph from a Beatrix Potter Story (downloaded from Project Gutenberg - http://www.gutenberg.org/ ) Text Mining with SAS - Larry Hoyle

17 A Text Topic Tool Can Build a Set of Topics Text Mining with SAS - Larry Hoyle 18 Topics are Based on Weighted Combinations of Words The weights for calculation Each segment can then be assigned a score for that topic 01/30/2020 Hoyle, Alternatives for Representing Coding of Qualitative Data, NADDI2014 19 Future Segments Could be Scored on These The weights for calculation Described by a DDI Generation Instruction for a variable shared across studies?

SegmentID paragraph MiningVar 1001Did you read the paper? 0.305 1002I wish spring would come 0.173 01/30/2020 Hoyle, Alternatives for Representing Coding of Qualitative Data, NADDI2014 20 Data or Metadata? Depends on use, doesnt it? (c.f. NSA use of phone metadata) YearBuilt might be metadata when searching for image segments or text descriptions of old buildings It might be data if we used the text mining variables to predict building age Metadata? SegmentID 01/30/2020

SegmentName CampusBuilding Data? EveningVenue YearBuilt Address Cluster1 MiningVar 1 AlumniCenter 0 1 1983 1266 Oread Ave.

0 1.27 2 StudentUnion 1 0 1926 1301 Jayhawk Blvd. 1 0.8 Hoyle, Alternatives for Representing Coding of Qualitative Data, NADDI2014 21 Similarity Between Models A code (its associated category) can refer to a concept

A variable can refer to a concept So both approaches ultimately relate a segment to some concept 01/30/2020 Hoyle, Alternatives for Representing Coding of Qualitative Data, NADDI2014 22 Data Record Advantages Can handle Mixed Method Research (Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches) Works for surveys with open-ended questions Allows for sharing of codes and quantitative variables across studies Searching for codes is the same as searching for other attributes (e.g. building age from above) Flexible 01/30/2020 Hoyle, Alternatives for Representing Coding of Qualitative Data, NADDI2014

23 Disadvantages More difficult to explain? Searching involves more indirect lookup Segment with a record with a value of 1 (has attribute) on Variable AnalyticCode Vs Segment with AnalyticCode of xxx Codes, categories, and memos lose special meaning Resistance from qualitative only researchers? 01/30/2020 Hoyle, Alternatives for Representing Coding of Qualitative Data, NADDI2014 24 Discussion Advantages and disadvantages to data record approach?

Other comments? 01/30/2020 Hoyle, Alternatives for Representing Coding of Qualitative Data, NADDI2014 25 For More About the Qualitative Model See: Toward Qualitative Data in DDI. Larry Hoyle and Joachim Wackerow Larry Hoyle is a Senior Scientist at the Institute for Policy & Social Research, University of Kansas [email protected] . Joachim Wackerow is a metadata expert at GESIS - Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences and can be reached at [email protected] version: November 2013 01/30/2020 Hoyle, Alternatives for Representing Coding of Qualitative Data, NADDI2014 26

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