Airway Management in PFC

Airway Management in PFC

Airway Management in PFC Developed by 91 Civil Affairs Presented/modified by 1BCT, 82D ABN DIV Agenda Back to the basics Intubation SOF Tactical Airway Algorithm Critical Care Airway checklist

SORT Airway checklist MSMAID Intubation Special Operations Tactical Airway Algorithm, Awake Cricothyroidotomy and What to Do Next Special Operations/Tactical /PFC Airway Algorithm

This was meant for Medics who are not able to maintain proficiency on Direct Endotracheal Intubation defined by Initial training and evaluation Recommending medics watch 50 video intubations prior to picking up laryngoscope! Mannequin should be used for stress inoculation training 6-8 live intubations per quarter Cuffed Cricothyroidotomy tube can remain in place up to 72 hours

#4 Airway Recommendations: Why Cric?! Post ET intubation pain and sedation drips requiring a lot of meds Having a tube in the back of your throat is extremely uncomfortable Initial intubation training not uniform or evaluated on live patients Veterinary models not similar to human anatomy Skills maintenance for RSI not likely with:

Deployments and other training requirements 1-4 week MPT rotation every 4 years (for SOF) 125 medics in BDE! (250 in BCT) one low hospital that was just established No civilian cert accrediting us to intubate on the streets What About all Those Other Techniques? Oxygenation Limited supplies, Concentrator low FiO2 Supraglottic Airways like the King LT and LMA Not secure for evac, may allow aspiration, suppressing gag reflex still an issue RSI Paralytics, suppressing gag reflex, Maintaining skills

RSA - Paralytics (Rapid Sequence Airway LMA-see life in the fast lane website) DSI Maintaining Analgesia Drip (delayed sequence intubation) Awake Intubation Maintaining pharyngeal anesthetization, Indications for the Cric

If a patient has massive facial trauma and is conscious you will need to take control of the airway Take it early If you sedate one of these guys you will need to take their airway. Dont wait until it is emergent Do you plan on them sleeping sitting up bleeding from their face? If they are bleeding enough from their facial trauma they may develop hypovolemia and accompanying anxiety and agitation They will be come fatigued at some point and will lose the ability to protect their own airway If a patient has sustained burns of the upper airway they will likely develop edema and lose their airway Do the cric early before it is an emergency

If a patient has chest wall injury and cannot maintain O2 sats even while sleeping they will need positive pressure ventilations Will they tolerate bagging with BVM and facemask? Any other disease process that limits their ability to maintain saturation or protect their own airway Cerebral or meningeal diseases If a patient had any of the processes described earlier you will need to take control of the airway Awake cricothyroidotomy? Anatomy and Landmarks

Pre-Oxygenate if Available If limited supply available This is the time to use it! Nasal Cannula 15Lpm or NRB + Nasal Cannula 15Lpm each or Patient can hold a BVM with PEEP valve to his own mouth if he can maintain a seal The Awake Cricothyroidotomy Checklist Military SOF medics should be extremely comfortable and practiced at this skill

Patient can remain sitting up breathing on their own until ready to cut Preoxygenate if possible with Nasal cannula 15Lpm/NRB 15Lpm Combo or BVM w/ PEEP and O2(patient can just breath through it ) Pretreat with 8mg zofran Give 1-2mg IV of Versed to take the edge off and cause amnesia Have an assistant hold the patient upright Give sedation dose of Ketamine 1-2mg/kg IV slow push Adequately clean area with povidine iodine and allow it to dry Inject wheal of 2% lidocane over Cricothyroid Membrane and clean area where you will incise Advance the needle while aspirating When you see bubbles you are in the Trachea

Squirt 3mls into the trachea causing them to cough and distribute the lidocaine Lean the patient back and hyperextend the neck Make your vertical incision like normal Make horizontal stabbing incision ensuring the hole is wide enough for the tube to easily pass Secure with cric hook or bougie Insert the tube and inflate the cuff Confirm and reconfirm Placement like you would with ET intubation Failures by inexperienced operators usually end up under the skin but outside the airway Bougie Aided Cric? YouTube videos

After incising the cricothyroid membrane With the scalpel still holding the hole open insert the bougie If the patient is unconscious the bougie can easily go down to the carina (about 11cm) Remove the Scalpel Slide the tube over the Bougie Double check placement The Post Cric Checklist

Quantitative or Waveform Capnography Check Tube Depth Secure the Tube Well BVM with PEEP Valve / Lung Protective Strategy Achieve Adequate Analgesia and Sedation Raise the Head of the Bed to 30 - 45 Filter and Humidify the Air with a (0.45 cent) Heat Moisture Exchanger

Place In-Line Suction and suction the mouth Cuff Pressure Prevent Aspiration past the Cuff of the ETT Gastric Tube, if not done yet Get a Blood Gas if possible Put a BVM at the Bedside PEEP Valve Have a Plan for Vent Alarms Decontaminate the mouth with chlorhexidine swab Confirm and Reconfirm Placement Qualitative Single Use Color Changing Capnometer

ETD Bulb Can detect if tube is sub cutaneous and not in the airway Quantitative Numeric Capnometer Stethoscope if environment permits Check Tube Depth If you used a full size ET tube and buried it to the hilt you may need to pull it back until you can see or feel it in the lower airway in the neck. 3cm should be good enough

Use stethoscope to ensure tube is not in right mainstem bronchus Tube placement is routinely checked with X-Ray in hospitals Ultrasound can be used as well Secure in Place Suture in place Further secure with commercial device or tied tubbing from IV or cannula

Check under this device every 8 hours for signs of pressure necrosis Sedation and Analgesia From SOCOM PFC WG Analgesia/Sedation Comments(February, 2014) "Any procedure that involves sedation should also include monitoring the patient, ideally with end tidal CO2 (with a waveform), and at a minimum, have oxygen saturation (pulse ox) monitoring." Many of the drugs available to 18Ds can cause nausea. Pre-treat with 8mg Zofran If ketamine is given in analgesia doses it should not be done as a drip. Do boluses over at least 2 mins. You can give a Ketamine sedation drip for transport or procedure as follows:

Add 750mg of to a 250mg bag of normal Saline (some providers add up to 25mg of versed also.) The initial drip rate is kg bodyweight/2=cc/hr. For example a 100 kg patient would be started at 50cc/hr drip rate. At this rate, you can calculate the bag lasting about 5 hours. In practice, it is observed that the majority of the time, the drip rate could be cut in half after 20-30min, and the bag may last 8-9hrs. (For reference, the initial doses are ketamine: 1.5mg/kg/hr, and versed:0.05mg/kg/hr). If any other questions see the SOCOM PFC WG Analgesia/Sedation Comments(February, 2014) at www.prolongedfieldcare.org Raise Head of Bed

Fowlers Position Ideal 30-45 degrees This natural position will improve lung function May prevent micro aspiration from stomach contents around the cuff Help ICP in head injured patients More comfortable if patient is aware Lung Protective Strategy

This may mean a BVM with a PEEP valve for medics SAVent (which has no PEEP) should only be used when absolutely necessary for a couple hours at most Initial transport when all personnel are required to drive High threat/ High security needed Should get back to BVM with PEEP valve ASAP If older Impact 752 vent available see Rule of 5s Checklist Keep out Debris and Humidify the Air

ICU ventilators have humidification built in So do Humans Our option: Heat Moisture exchanger ($0.45 cents) Retains patients own moisture Blocks out sand and debris from helicopter rotor wash or ground evac if no vent available Can remain in place up to 72 hours Med Log Reference #14412 Place and Use Inline Suction Every Hour

Suction the mouth when you suction the tube Use a Ballard in-line suction to maintain sterility Reference #2205 If Quantitative End Tidal CO2 isnt Hooked up yet DO IT! If transporting or transferring this will immediately alert you to a problem $1300-$2500 SPO2 Pulse Oxs may take minutes to let you know, especially if the patient is on 100% O2

Check ET Tube Cuff Pressure Too low and you risk micro-aspiration and VAP Thats bad (aspiration pneumonia) Too high and the patient has the potential for tracheal ischemia Also bad The ideal pressure is between 20-30 cm H20, hard to guessimate.

Use a cufflator Think Twice About Replacing Air with Saline Many people recommend replacing the air in the cuff with saline prior to air evac due to the increased pressure This can cause more harm than just leaving air! The small bubbles that remain cause can cause the pressure to be focused in one area. It is extremely difficult to remove all the air

Once at altitude check cuff pressure and again after decending NG OG Tube Can be done procedurally prior to tubing if the situation permits Use Ketamine and suck out stomach contents if patient is tubed Complete after the cric if it was done emergently Have a Plan for alarms or vital signs out of

normal range Each member of the team who is not medically trained should know what constitutes an emergency and when to seek help. Rising or No ETCO2 Falling or No Pulse Ox Change respiratory rate Change in Heart Rate Change in Blood Pressure Change in Glucose Change in Lactate

Decontaminate the mouth with Chlorhexidine This should be done as soon as possible after the patient is tubed Oral hygiene is usually done every 4 hours thereafter You can alternate between brushing teeth and swabbing with chlorhexidine Oral Rinse Dont forget chap stick or vaseline

for the lips MSMAID If you are going to sedate, you need to have MSMAID covered. Monitor, Suction, Machine, Airway, IV, Drugs. A professional will have access to some form of these items if they are going to sedate. A BVM can be your machine, a pulse ox can be your monitor, but you must have these items covered in some form before you sedate.

Airway basics for PFC Airway management (and subsequent supplemental oxygen, ventilator support, gastric decompression, and a suction device) is a core capability for Prolonged Field Care. Basics Save Lives Every medic should be trained and maintained with the following airway skills at a minimum: opening and maintaining an airway (with

adjunctive NP/OP), bag-valve-mask ventilation, placing a supraglottic airway, and cricothyrotomy. Conclusion Airway management is essential

Think long-term for PFC Pre planning and preparation saves lives Basics save lives

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