Age of Enlightenment

Age of Enlightenment

GOOD AFTERNOON!!!! Please take out your Absolutism review paper that you did in class on Friday. It was a half sheet Make sure you have a textbook if you did not finish. Start working on it NOW. GOOD AFTERNOON!! Pick up the paper from the Stool!

Sit quietly!!! CHALLENGEWARM UP Define Absolutism What is Divine Right? Louis XIV ruled over? Peter the Great ruled over? Oda Nobunaga ruled over? Tokugawa ruled over? Kangxi ruled over? Define Heliocentric and Geocentric Sun is the center of the universe (Heliocentric) Earth is the center of the universe (Geocentric)

What is a revolution? An overthrow or replacement of an established government or political system by the people AGE OF REASON AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION CHANGES WORLD VIEW Renaissance

A rebirth of learning and the arts Inspired curiosity in many fields Scholars began to question ideas that had been accepted for hundreds of yrs Video CAUSES OF THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 1. Renaissance inspired new curiosities 2. Exploration (broaden European horizons) 3. Science challenges old ways

of thought 4. Printing press 5. Work of Scientists (i.e. astronomers, Newton, advancements in medicine) MIDDLE AGES VIEW Most scholars believed that the earth was in immovable object located at the center of the universe-Geocentric theory

Common sense seemed to support this view Religion also supported this theory AND A REVOLUTION BEGINS The Scientific Revolution was a new way of thinking about the natural world. That way was based upon careful observation and a willingness to question

accepted beliefs Traveling the world opened up the Europeans to this idea that there was a whole world of new truths to be found COPERNICUS1473-1543 Astronomer Became interested in an old Greek idea that the sun stood at the center of the universe He knew that most scholars and clergy would reject his

theory because it contradicted their religious views Published his writings on his death bed HeliocentricSun is at the center of the universe GALILEO1564-1642 Built his own telescope and used it to study the heavens Noticed the moon had an uneven surface His observations, as well as

laws of motion, supported Copernicus Devout catholicfaces considerable opposition from church leaders GALILEO VS. THE CHURCH Video Result: Galileo had to lie to the church and claim he did not support Copernicus's ideas and he was put on house arrest until he died.

The church did not apologize or admit they were wrong until 1992! TAKE OUT YOUR ORANGE SCI REV NOTES FROM YESTERDAY!!! Which quote most likely was made by an absolute monarch? a. the government that governs best govern least

b. the government must be based on a sound constitution c. it is the parliament that must make laws d. I am the state

Who did this??? Lowered taxes for peasants, considered by subjects to be a conscientious and fair ruler, created a secret service that reported to him through Palace Memorials KEPLER (1571-1630) German Astronomer Discovered that the path of the planets was elliptical rather then circular The speed of the revolution varied as a function of their distance from the sun.

He made it possible for astronomers to predict mathematically the positions of the earth, sun and planets IF I HAVE SEEN FURTHER, IT IS BECAUSE I HAVE STOOD ON THE SHOULDERS OF GIANTS. -Isaac Newton ISAAC NEWTON1643-1727 Calculus

Three laws of planetary motiongravity Proved universe worked in certain laws Shouldnt man? Government? Education? Scientific Method Observation Experimentation Think and Ponder. Would you have

the courage and conviction, to face persecution, in the pursuit of truth? REVIEW How did King Louis XIV show that he had absolute rule? Who proved the

geocentric theory was wrong? What does it mean to be an absolute ruler? What did Galileo do? Peter the Great was greatly influenced by what other part of the world? What was Isaac Newtons contribution to

science? Review video GOOD AFTERNOON! Take out your Absolutism Cube Activity from last week AND your review (half sheet) if you havent turned it in NOW!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Pass them to the front

Person in the front, put them into 2 stacks. If your cube does not have a pink highlighter mark on it then you are getting 11 points taken off for it being late Quiz tomorrow JUST over Absolutism and Scientific Revolution IMAGINE What would happen if there were no laws? What would it be like at school or at home if

teachers or parents didnt have the right to tell you what to do State of naturea situation where there is no government or laws What might be advantages and disadvantages of living in a state of nature? What would life be like? AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT

Enlightenment- intellectual movement focused on reason, thought and the power of individuals to solve problems Philosophesenlightened thinkers that focused on solving social problems Began to reevaluate old notions about other aspects of society Attacked superstition, ignorance and easy acceptance of authority

Crash course PHILOSOPHES KEY IDEAS Reason reason was the absence of intolerance, bigotry and superstition. Reason meant informed thinking about social problems Nature and natural laws believed natural laws regulate both the universe and human society Happiness- seek well-being here and now not in the hereafter; this was an inalienable right

Progress- the discovery of laws of economics and government would improve society and make progress Liberty- they lived in societies that placed restrictions on speech, religion, and trade. They wanted to remove these limitations on human liberty. Toleration- The philosophes advocated full religious toleration THINK AND WRITE Think of a right you believe all people should have. For example, you probably agree that everyone in the U.S. has the right to be protected from robbers and burglars. The belief that everyone should have this protection is held by

most Americans In your notes, WRITE and explain how you think rights like the one you have identified can be protected JOHN LOCKE Locke rejected the ideas that humans are innately brutish. People are instead the products of their training, education and experience. Human had a natural ability to govern their own affairs and to look after the welfare of society Favored the idea of self-government All people are born with 3 natural rights

1. Life 2. Liberty 3. Property

These rights are derived from what Locke called the law of nature. Government is a contract in which the rulers promise to safeguard the peoples natural rights. If rulers betray their trust, the governed have the right to replace them. VOLTAIRE (PEN NAME) Probably the most brilliant and influential of the philosophes Criticized France's rigid government and denounced religious bigotry Believed nobles are corrupt and common

people are stupid Although he made a lot of enemies he never stopped fighting for tolerance, reason, freedom of religion, and freedom of speech (sound familiar??) I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it. Baron de Montesquieu He was a French nobleman and attorney who wanted to limit the abuses of royal absolutism. Believed Britain was the best-governed

and most politically balanced country of his own day Believed in a separation of powersdivision of power among several branches of government (again something sounds familiar about this) The idea behind this is no one group possess too much power and control Going to become the basis for the US Constitution ROUSSEAU Passionately committed to individual freedom Believed people are naturally good but society

corrupts them He believed the sovereign power in a state does not lay in a ruler. Instead it resides in the general will of the community as whole. Rulers are seen as servants to the community. If they fail to carry out the peoples will, they should be removed. The Social Contract is a book written by Rousseau, is one of the most influential books on political theory in European history. It stated that people gave up some of their freedom in order for the common good of society. Man is born free but everywhere he is in chains.

LEGACY OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT It examined such principles as Divine right of monarchs The union of church and state The existence of unequal social classes Produced three long-term effects that helped shape western ideas 1. Belief in progress

2. A more secular outlook 3. Importance of the individual BELIEF IN PROGRESS Galileo and Newton opened the doors in science to new discoveries Scientists made key new discoveries in chemistry, physics,

biology and mechanics Success in the Scientific Revolution gave people confidence that human reason can solve social problems Philosophes and reformers urged an end to the practice of slavery and argued for greater social equality, as well as a more democratic style of government. MORE SECULAR OUTLOOK Remember secular means worldly or non-religious People began to question openly their religious beliefs and the teachings of the church Newton is going to discover that some mysteries of God could be explained mathematically and Voltaire is going to attack the practice of organized Christianity

They wanted to promote tolerance of all religions IMPORTANCE OF THE INDIVIDUAL As people began to turn away from the church and royalty for guidance, they looked to themselves instead. Government, they argued, was formed by individuals to promote their welfare. BELLRINGER 1. How does Lockes view of human nature differ from that

of Hobbes? 2. In your own words define the Enlightenment 3. List the different Enlightenment thinkers 4. Rousseaus Social Contract vs. Hobbes

Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains - Rousseau If all men are born free, how is it that all women are born slaves? REVIEW!! 1. For each term or name, write a sentence explaining

its significance. Enlightenment social contract John Locke philosophe Voltaire Montesquieu Rousseau 2. What are the natural rights with which people are born, according to John Locke? 3.

Who were the philosophes and what did they advocate? 4. What was the legacy of the Enlightenment? 5. DRAWING CONCLUSIONS-Do you think the philosophes were optimistic about the future of humankind? Explain. THE ENLIGHTENMENT SPREADS

Ideas spread with the help of books, magazines, and word of mouth Influenced everything from the artistic world to governments Paris is going to be the cultural and intellectual capital of the Europe Wealthy women held regular social gatherings in their drawing rooms. These social gatherings were referred to as salons. ENCYCLOPEDIA The most influential of the salon hostesses in Voltaires time was Marie-Thrse Geoffrin.

She helped finance the project of a leading philosophe named Denis Diderot. He created a large set of books to which many leading scholars of Europe contributed articles and essays. He called it Encyclopedia and began publishing the first volumes in 1751. Do you think their was any controversy around this new scholarly work? Angered both the French Government and Catholic Church They said it undermined church authority, encouraged a spirit of revolt, and fostered moral corruption, irreligion and an unbelief.

GOOD AFTERNOON!!!! You have a quiz today!!!! Over Absolute rulers and Scientific Revolution I would study them now!!! You should know policies and accomplishments of Louis XIV Peter the Great Oda Nobunaga Tokugawa Ieyasu Kangxi Copernicus Galileo

Kepler Newton WHEN YOU FINISH YOUR QUIZ Bring it to my desk Return to seat Take out your Enlightenment bumper sticker assignment from yesterday and begin working on it. This is due today!!!!!!

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