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Social Psychology CHAPTER 11 Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Social Psychology (1 of 3) Social psychology scientific study of how thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by others Social influence when the behavior of an

individual or a group is influenced by other people or groups Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Power of the Situation (1 of 2) Aspects of the social situation that determine the extent to which we are influenced by others: Social norms the rules and expectations for how to behave in various situations

Social roles expectations that define a persons behavior as a function of his or her status or position Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Power of the Situation (2 of 2) Deindividuation phenomenon that occurs when people feel anonymous and lack personal accountability and may abandon their

normal restraints and inhibitions Produced by many situational factors being part of a large crowd, wearing a mask, and feeling anonymous Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Conformity

Conformity yielding to group pressure Factors affecting conformity: Group size Unanimity

Gender Culture Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Reasons for Conformity (1 of 2) Normative conformity behavioral change motivated by the desire to fit in and gain approval from the group

driven by the need to be liked Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Reasons for Conformity (2 of 2) Informational conformity behavioral change due to the belief that the group has valuable information likely in ambiguous situations

driven by the need to be right Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Fig. Aschs Experiments Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Obedience (1 of 3) Obedience following a direct command from

an authority figure Motivated by the desire to avoid negative consequences from a person in power Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Obedience (2 of 3) Stanley Milgrams experiment Stemmed from an effort to understand the tragic

events of the Holocaust Tested whether a person would follow the orders of an experimenter when asked to deliver painful electric shocks to a fellow participant Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Obedience (3 of 3) Majority of people willingly administered potentially lethal levels

Conclusion that ordinary people capable of evil acts as a result of the desire to obey an important authority figure Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 11.2 Milgrams Experiments Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 11.3

Results from Milgrams Experiment Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Compliance Compliance act of agreeing to a specific request from a person with little or no authority Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Compliance Tactics (1 of 2)

Foot-in-the-door tactic getting someone to agree to a small request, so that they are more likely to agree to a larger request later Door-in-the-face tactic a compliance tactic in which a small request is followed by a larger request Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Compliance Tactics (2 of 2)

Thats-not-all tactic requester makes a deal more appealing by adding extras or bonuses before asking for a commitment Low-ball tactic after getting a person to commit to a request, the requester increases the cost of performing the action Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Group Membership (1 of 2)

Group two or more people who define themselves as members of a group and are recognized as a group by at least one other person Common-bond groups groups formed by attachments between group members Common-identity groups groups that involve attachment to the groups identity Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Group Membership (2 of 2) Group cohesiveness the force bringing group members closer together influenced by several factors: smaller size groups tend to be more cohesive similarity threats

between group members from an outside group Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Stages of Group Membership (1 of 2) 1. 2. 3. Investigation phase prospective members

recruited by full-fledged members, or they may seek out information about the group Socialization phase new members are taught the rules, roles, and norms of the group Maintenance phase full-fledged members actively participate in a group Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Stages of Group Membership (2 of 2) 4. 5.

Resocialize attempts by group members to encourage them back into the group if participation in a group starts to wane Remembrance person has left the group Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 11.4 Stages of Group Membership Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Groups (1 of 2)

Ingroup people who share ones group membership Outgroups groups with which one doesnt identify Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Groups (2 of 2) Purposes of groups:

social identity theory groups help individuals maintain a sense of pride and self-esteem joining forces with others can help us get things done banding together with others helps us survive Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Group Dynamics Social facilitation the enhancement of a well-learned response in the presence of others Performance impaired if task is difficult Social loafing the reduction in individual output when acting as part of a group

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 11.6 Facilitation of Dominant Response Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Group Decision Making (1 of 3) Presence of others can influence: how we make individual decisions

how groups arrive at the decisions Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Group Decision Making (2 of 3) Group polarization the exaggeration of ones initial attitudes following group discussions if initial decision was cautious, become even

more cautious after group discussion if initial response was risky, group discussion will lead toward riskier responses Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Group Decision Making (3 of 3) Groups can hinder decision making

Groupthink a deterioration in mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment that results from ingroup pressures Aspects of group situations that encourage groupthink: high cohesiveness in the group group norms that encourage conformity Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Prejudice (1 of 2) Prejudice negative feelings toward particular groups An emotional bias based on group membership Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Prejudice (2 of 2)

Discrimination treating people differently solely on the basis of their group membership Racism the belief that a certain race is superior to any or all others Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Theories of Prejudice (1 of 2) Realistic conflict theory idea that competition over scarce resources leads

people to see their own group as morally superior and more deserving leads to prejudice toward outgroup members Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Explained! What is Social Engineering! Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Theories of Prejudice (2 of 2)

Intergroup threat theory belief that outgroups pose threats to power, resources, safety, values, and world view leads to anxiety and negative feelings toward the outgroup Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Reducing Prejudice (1 of 2) Contact hypothesis method of reducing

prejudice in which group are placed in direct contact with each other Superordinate goals shared goals that can only be achieved when people work together effective cooperative situations offer potential for friendships to form and the development of positive feelings Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Reducing Prejudice (2 of 2) Consciousness raising becoming aware of biases can happen through conscious effort, education, and intervention programs Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Learning Objectives

11.3a Define aggression and discuss the primary causes of aggression. 11.3b Describe the factors that increase and decrease the odds that an individual will help others. 11.3c Discuss the rules of interpersonal attraction and the types of love. Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Aggression (1 of 2) Aggression behaviors intended to harm

Two types: 1. Hostile aggression harming someone out of anger 2. Instrumental aggression harming another person as a means to reach a goal Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Aggression (2 of 2)

Physical aggression intending to hurt by causing physical pain Social aggression intending to hurt by rejecting, ostracizing, or spreading rumors Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 11.9 Gender Differences in Aggression

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Causes of Aggression (1 of 6) Biological factors Certain genetic tendencies more likely to aggress Link between levels of the sex hormone testosterone and aggressive behavior ratio

of testosterone to other stress-related hormones, such as cortisol, may be a bigger determinant Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Causes of Aggression (2 of 6) Biological factors (cont.) Side effect of certain medications (anti-anxiety drugs, anabolic steroids, alcohol, and cocaine)

Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and various structures in the limbic system Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Causes of Aggression (3 of 6) Situational circumstances

Irritating or uncomfortable aspects of the physical environment Frustration-aggression hypothesis idea that people aggress when kept from reaching their goals Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Causes of Aggression (4 of 6)

Psychological factors Threatened-egotism theory violence is related to the combination of a threat to the ego with a highly favorable view of the self People who score high on personality traits of anger and impulsiveness more likely to aggress characteristic of antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Causes of Aggression (5 of 6) Media influences Learned through watching others aggress amount of violent media viewing in childhood predicts violent and aggressive behaviors in adulthood

Violent video games Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Causes of Aggression (6 of 6) General aggression model (GAM) takes into consideration the biology, personality, and environment, as well as the thoughts, feelings, and arousal of a person

Recognizes both situational variables and individual variables Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 11.11 The General Aggression Model Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Altruism (1 of 4) Prosocial behaviors actions that benefit or

show kindness to others Altruism a specific prosocial behavior that involves aiding another when there is no benefit to the self Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Altruism (2 of 4) Diffusion of responsibility a sense that

one does not have to take action because others will do it Bystander effect the more people who witness an emergency situation, the less likely it is that someone will help Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Altruism (3 of 4) Three critical decision points that influence

helping: 1. Notice the situation 2. Define the situation as an emergency 3. Take responsibility Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Altruism (4 of 4) Theories of altruism Personal gain we help because it makes us feel good Empathy-altruism humans have evolved to be empathetic and compassionate for the purpose of ensuring cooperation and protection for those who are weaker

Helping norms cultural norms influence when, how, and who we help Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Interpersonal Attraction Interpersonal attraction tendency to think about a person in a positive way and the desire to meet and get close to him or her

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Rules of Attraction Physical attractiveness preference to interact with physically attractive individuals What is beautiful is good stereotype assumption that people who are beautiful on the outside are beautiful on the inside as well

Matching hypothesis in romantic relationships, the tendency to invest more time and effort in interactions with others of similar attractiveness Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Environmental Variables Music, lighting, temperature, and even architecture found to influence attraction

Proximity degree to which one is physically close (in actual distance) to another Familiarity principle the more we are exposed to someone, the more we like him or her Similarity preference for people who share similar values, beliefs, personality, and other core dimensions of the self Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Theories of Love (1 of 2) Passionate love strong feelings of sexual attraction, infatuation, and arousal typically associated with the beginning of a romantic relationship Companionate love the deep affection, intimacy, and closeness felt for others

characterized by mutual respect, affection, trust, and deep attachment Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Theories of Love (2 of 2) Sternbergs theory of love theory that love consists of three primary components that can result in seven different kinds of love Passion feelings of romance, sexual attraction, and desire

Intimacy feelings of emotional closeness and connection Commitment a decision to be in a loving relationship with another person Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 11.14 Sternbergs Theory of Love

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

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